Presentation on theme: "United States History Chapter #6 “The Origins of American Politics” (1789 – 1820)"— Presentation transcript:
United States History Chapter #6 “The Origins of American Politics” (1789 – 1820)
Washington’s Presidency Major Political Events: 1.First Bank of the U.S. 2.Neutrality during the French Rev. and b/w France and England when they went to war. 3.Whiskey Rebellion
Washington’s Legacy Inauguration – April 30, 1789 –In temporary capital, NYC (later Philly) –Elected unanimously * Precedents: –Established a cabinet –Took control of foreign affairs Proclamation of Neutrality –Suggested laws to Congress –Use of federal troops to enforce laws –Presidential terms –State of the Union
The New Gov’t First elections – Fall 1788 (GW, Sp 1789) John Adams, VP –Frustrated with lack of activity Judicial branch didn’t exist… –Appointed, not elected –Judiciary Act of 1789 – Set up Federal Cts First Supreme Court Justice – John Jay Bill of Rights passed
What about all the debt??? Congress agreed to collect TARIFFS Creation of Economic system? = A. Hamilton (on the $10) –Only 33 when Sec. of Treasury –Believed in: Strong national gov’t (afraid of “mob mentality”) US economy based primarily on manufacturing, not farming Power should be in hands of wealthy
Hamilton’s Financial Plan Debt – paid back in the following order: –Foreign Debt ($12 million to France & Netherlands) –Domestic debt to merchants –Assumption bill – assume state debts, $25 mil –Gov’t needs some debt – motivation! Encourage development of industry Excise tax – tax on goods produced in the USA ---- Whiskey tax
The National Bank Modeled on Bank of England Would hold $$$ and revenues of gov’t Bank would issue paper $$$ backed by gold and silver (kept in vault) Bank would be owned by gov’t and wealthy investors Passed through Congress, signed by GB 20 year charter, $10 million to start
Some Opposition Jefferson and Madison –Said plan favored wealthy only Southern states –Favored agriculture & had already paid debts!! Strict Constructionists –Plan was unconstitutional –Power not listed as enumerated in Constitution
Agreed…. On the Assumption Bill of 1790 –Federal gov’t assumed state’s debts –National capital would be moved to the District of Columbia
Sect. #1 cont. (things causing problems for Washington and the U.S. French RevolutionFrench Revolution –1789 –The oppressed French people ousted from power Louis XVI and his wife Marie Antoinette. Remember the saying, “let them eat cake”? –Divided Americans At first they said, they are fighting for the same reasons we did (you know Amer Revo), we should help. But then the French started chopping people’s heads off. –Little extreme for some Americans… –How should the American govt. respond? (remember Neutrality under Wash.) They did stay neutral
More Problems… –Whiskey Rebellion Resistance to Hamilton’s economic program. Can this government make it or will they not be able to put down a rebellion like the Articles? –Washington flexed the gov’ts muscels and put down the rebellion! –Significance: showed this gov’t wasn’t going anywhere. –Jay’s Treaty –Was a war b/t GB and FR –Pres. Washington believed it was better for the U.S. to side with Britain than France. So he sent John Jay to Britain to sign a deal. –Lost the support of many Americans.
Enrichment/Optional Assignment Create a primary document! –Newspaper Article About the Whiskey Rebellion OR the French Revolution. –Include: Background information, American involvement, and the Significance. Color and be creative! –Name your newspaper, get photos, etc.
Sect. #1 cont. FEDERALISTSFEDERALISTS –Led by Washington and Hamilton. –Favor strong central govt. –Support new taxes and tariffs. –Support more powerful army and navy. –Pro-British –Pro-Business JEFFERSONIAN REPUBLICANSJEFFERSONIAN REPUBLICANS –Led by Jefferson –Favored weak central govt. –Oppose new taxes and tariffs. –Against large army and navy. –Pro-French –Pro-Agriculture
George Washington steps down Because of criticism from the Jeffersonian Republicans, President Washington chose not to run for a third term. So his Vice President, John Adams, ran for President against Thomas Jefferson. Adams won and was President from ; Jefferson became the Vice President because he came in second (in 1804 that changed with the 12 th Amendment)
Washington’s Farewell Address He warned us of: –Foreign alliances –Political parties “[A system of political parties] agitates the Community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms, kindles the animosity of one part against another, [and] foments [stirs up] occasional riot and insurrection.”
2 nd President: John Adams
2 nd President: John Adams Born: Oct. 30, 1735 Died: July 4, 1826 Birthplace: Braintree, MA Party: Federalist Married: Abigail (“Remember the ladies…,all men would be tyrants if they could”) Children: Abigail, John Quincy, Susanna, Charles, and Thomas
Section #2: John Adams President “The Government Takes a New Course” John Adams – Major Political EventsJohn Adams – Major Political Events –XYZ Affair The most pressing item at hand was the harassment of U.S. shipping to and from Great Britain. The French were angry about Jay’s Treaty b/t US and GB. The American people wanted war (there was also rumor that France was planning an invasion of North America) Adams knew America was not ready to fight, so he heeded Washington’s warning and tried to avoid conflict.
X,Y,and Z President Adams sent three diplomats to meet French foreign minister Charles Talleyrand. Talleyrand, appointed three of his own agents to meet w/the Americans. (these three were identified as X,Y,and Z ) The Frenchmen asked for a bribe of $250,000 to stop harassing the U.S. ships. This infuriated Adams, but he still knew a war was not a good option, so he persuaded Congress to suspend trade with France and made arrangements for the British navy to protect transatlantic shipping. (this angered Jefferson, and many other Americans – felt it went against the American Revolution)
President John Adams Quasi-War: –Spring of ’98, U.S. frigates engaged French warships in an armed struggle over U.S. neutrality, this lasted for two years. –It was known as the Quasi-War b/c officially, the two countries were at peace. –Adams delayed asking for Congress to declare war, hoping that the French, busy fighting in Europe, would stop bothering with N. Amer. –In Sept., 1800, a second, more successful diplomatic mission to Talleyrand persuaded France to recognize U.S. neutrality in exchange for an increase in U.S. exports to France.
John Adams Alien and Sedition Acts During the summer of 1798, when war with France seemed likely, Adams signed the: Alien and Sedition Acts –Alien Act, President gained the right to imprison or deport citizens of other countries residing in the U.S. –Sedition Act, persons who wrote, published, or said anything “of a false, scandalous, and malicious” nature against the Amer. Govt. or its officials could be fined or jailed.
Alien and Sedition Acts These laws were supposed to protect national security by giving the president special powers to deport dangerous foreigners and suppress dangerous speech.(sounds a lot like the Patriot Act of 2002) However, in practice the Federalists used the Alien and Sedition Acts not to prosecute spies but to persecute Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican party. Dem-Rep. Congressman Matthew Lyon of Vermont was sentenced to four months in jail for writing in a personal letter that Adams was selfish and pompous.
Section #2 cont. –The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Jefferson and Madison believed the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional, so they argued the states should decide b/c the Constitution, did not spell it out. If a state decides a law is unconstitutional, it can declare it “null and void” within the state. –This issue of nullification went unresolved. –Increasing Tensions Federalists vs. Jeffersonian Republicans Jefferson: “Spirit of 1776” vs. Adams: “Spirit of 1787”. –Idea of liberty with the Revo vs. Emphasis on order in the Constitution.
Gabriel Prosser’s Rebellion Before the election of 1800 took place, another event in the summer demonstrated the conflict surrounding the unresolved issue of slavery. Gabriel Prosser led a rebellion of slaves in Richmond, Virginia, they intended to take over Richmond and win freedom for the slaves.
Section #2 cont. Prosser’s Rebellion –Gabriel Prosser, blacksmith from Virginia. –Planned a slave rebellion at Richmond. –Failed b/c they were outnumbered –Prosser and 20 others executed. –“I have adventured my life in endeavoring to obtain the liberty of my countrymen, and am a willing sacrifice to their cause.”
During Adams’ Administration 1797, Philadelphia becomes the first U.S. city to build a centralized water- supply system. 1800, Parson Weems writes, The Life and Memorable Actions of George Washington, which invents such famous stories as that of young George chopping down his father’s cherry tree. 1800, census shows a national pop. Of 5,300,000. This figure includes about 1,000,000 blacks, of whom 90% are slaves. Virginia, with 900,000 people, is the most populous state.
Jefferson Vs. Adams Election of 1800 *Nasty election campaign. *Jefferson won the majority of popular vote, unable to get a majority of Electoral College. *House would choose new President. *Feb. 17, 1801; Jefferson was finally elected the third President of the U.S. on the 36 th vote. *Adams failed to quiet his critics and angered his supporters. *Jefferson was the clear leader of the people who believed in local to national govt. *The first transfer of power was a very important precedent, luckily the Federalists understood the significance and did so peacefully.
3 rd President: Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican)
3 rd President: Thomas Jefferson Born: April 13, 1743 Died: July 4, 1826 Place of Birth: Shadwell, VA Party: Democratic- Republican Married: Martha Children: Martha, Jane, Mary, Lucy, Lucy(one died at birth)
Section #3: “The Jefferson Administration” Reducing Government:Reducing Government: “The sum of good government is a wise and frugal Gov’t, which shall restrain men from injuring one another, shall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry and improvement, and shall not take from the mouth of labor the bread it has earned. Domestic Changes: –Reduced taxes –Cut the size of bureaucracy. –Reduced the size of armed forces Army from 12,000 down to 3,000 troops. – He became a very popular president. His style was very casual and none pompous, so he easily won election in 1804, even received votes from Federalists states (Mass.).
Alexander Hamilton Vs. Aaron Burr July 11, 1804 Hamilton was a lawyer in NY. Burr was the VP under Jefferson Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel b/c he thought it was Ham., that caused him to lose the VP. Hamilton intentionally fired into the air, but Burr didn’t miss. Hamilton died the next day.
Sect. #3 cont. –The Judiciary Acts Jefferson’s relationship with the Judicial Branch was most controversial. Constitution had not fully explained either the organization or the role of this branch of govt. Judiciary Act of 1789: filled in missing details. Judiciary Act of 1801: decreased the number of SC justices. Pres. Adams and outgoing Congressmen were trying to limit Jefferson’s opportunity to appoint justices to the Supreme Court. Midnight Judges: appointed by Adams as he was leaving office
Judiciary Acts Marbury v. Madison (1803) Chief Justice John Marshall Judicial Review: Gave power for federal courts to review state laws and state court decisions to determine Constitutionality. Also allows federal courts to decide whether laws passed by Congress are Constitutional.
Sect. #3 cont. Louisiana PurchaseLouisiana Purchase: A Turning Point –The Land Act of 1800 Americans were able to buy land on credit. Transfer of land from Govt. to citizens. –Napoleon and the French Napoleon took over much of Spanish lands in America, including New Orleans. James Monroe sent to Paris by Pres. Jefferson to purchase New Orleans for $10 Million. Napoleon offered all of French claims in America for $15 million. Louisiana PurchaseThis becomes the Louisiana Purchase. –Lewis and Clark Expedition Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
Lewis and Clark Expedition
Lewis and Clark: * Bonus opportunity: find out their first names, bring it in tomorrow for a bonus card!!!
Sect. #3 cont. Jefferson’s Foreign Policy –European wars troubled the United States. –American ships being harassed. U.S.S. Chesapeake (look up this incident) –Embargo Act of 1807: Embargo: a restriction on trade Economic weapon Ruined Jefferson’s second term, direct interference of the national govt.
Section #4 “Native American Resistance” Questions of what to do about the Native American culture?Questions of what to do about the Native American culture? –The British who had once helped them no longer did, and the Americans were pushing them off their land. –Treaty of Greenville 1795, Native Americans in the Ohio region signed over two thirds of Ohio. Forced them to accept that the Ohio River was no longer a permanent boundary between their lands and those of American settlers. –What to do with natives? Exterminate – do we kill them all and be rid of the problem? Assimilate – do we try to simple force them into our culture and have them abandon their own? Removal – do we just kick them out and put them somewhere small/desolate? –How would the Natives Americans react? Some accepted white culture, blended Indian and American culture, returned to Indian traditions, or took military action.
Battle of Tippecanoe An Indian leader, Tecumseh, believed Indians’ only hope of resisting American expansion was to unite Indians by overcoming local and group differences. Tecumseh protested Americans “buying” Indian land, b/c the Indians were always tricked in some way –He protested in Indiana and the Governor Harrison was waiting for him with 1,000 soldiers. On Nov. 11, 1811 Tecumseh ordered his men to attack. –Battle of Tippecanoe The Battle lasted about two hours, and nobody won. Significance: battle shattered Native American confidence and trust in Tecumseh as a leader.
Tecumseh During the War of 1812, he rallied warriors to fight with the British in Canada. He died in the Battle of Thames in Ontario. He left a vital legacy of defiance against the Americans and gained respect from his people and their culture.
Fourth President: James Madison Writer of the Constitution and parts of The Federalist Papers He had a deep faith of limited government. During his administration this cost him b/c he failed to make decisions against the British in the War of 1812.
Fourth President: James Madison Born: March 16, 1751 Death: June 28, 1836 From: Port Conway, VA Party: Dem-Rep Married: Dolly Payne Todd Children: None
Major Political Events : Madison Tecumseh’s Confederacy War Hawks War of 1812
War Hawks In 18ll, voters replaced nearly ½ the members of the House with an aggressive group of young politicians anxious for war with Britain. They complained Madison’s diplomacy wasn’t doing enough to stop the con’t harassment of U.S. shipping. Henry Clay – War Hawk
War of 1812 In June 1812, worn down by the “War Hawks,” Madison reluctantly asked Congress to declare war on Great Britain. As his justification, Madison cited the ongoing attacks against U.S. vessels and Britain’s encouragement of Indian raids along the western and northern frontiers. From the start of the fighting, the war went poorly for the Americans
War of 1812 When Madison called for fifty thousand volunteers, only five thousand enlisted. The New England states, whose economic future depended on lively trade with Britain, opposed the war and refused to allow their militias to participate. The most significant victories were won by Capt. Oliver Hazard Perry on Lake Erie in 1813, and by Gen. Andrew Jackson at New Orleans in Jackson’s victory actually came after the Treaty of Ghent formally ended the war.
Section #5: “The War of 1812” War (be sure to know the following info.)War (be sure to know the following info.) –Impressment: the act of forcing people into military service. (this was done by the British) –Invade British-held Canada, beaten by the British in the summer of –Battle of Thames, Oct –Battle at Horseshoe Bend, March –Naval War –Burning of Washington D.C., Aug. 24, 1814
War of 1812 “Mr. Madison’s War”
The Star Spangled Banner The words to the song were written by Francis Scott Key during the War of 1812 (1814). He had watched the bombing of Fort McHenry by the British an dawn saw the American flag still flying. He knew the British attack had been turned back!
Effects of the War of 1812 Showed the need for a strong standing army. Encouraged nationalism –Andrew Jackson – 1 st American hero Death of the Federalist Party Shattered Native American resistance