How did it start? Early in 1948, The British, the French and the Americans were merged to form a singled economic unit in unifying their zones and introducing a new currency. Stalin feared the gap between the « poor » German Soviet zone and the « rich » German Capitalist zone would widen He closed all roads, canals, and rail links to Berlin to reduce the city to a STARVATION POINT 5 German Deutsche Mark
THE BLOCKADE 2,000,000 inhabitants (living in West Berlin) 6 weeks (left of food & fuel supplies) TRIZONE
How did Truman react? 28June 1948- May 1949 Anglo-US airlift flew 12,000 tons of supplies to Berlin every day Truman ordered B-29 long-range nuclear bombers to be stationed in GB Coal being unloaded from a plane at Berlin airport, 1948
-4,000 tons of fuel (needed per day) -3 air corridors (official flight paths into West Berlin) -3 air corridors (official flight paths into West Berlin) -8,000 tons a day (flown in per day by 1949) -79 (GB/US pilots died in accidents)
What were the long-term consequences? 1 st major conflict of Cold War 1949, Western allies created the Federal Republic of West Germany and the Soviets replied by creating the German Democratic Republic 1949, NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organisation) was founded Stalin turned to Asia : The Korean War began in 1950. When It became known in September 49 that the Russian had exploded their first A bomb an arm race started. Truman responded by creating a hydrogen bomb.
1-Present the document and its context referring to the lecture above. 2-Who is the man caricatured in that cartoon. Depict the situation he’s involved in. Use the vocabulary below: Storks-Blunderbuss- chimney- Beak. 3- What do storks symbolise? 4-Why is Stalin carrying a blunderbuss? What does the author want to suggest? 5-What was the OUTCOME of the crisis?
SITUATION OF BERLIN IN 1961 Background: East – West rivalry Berlin divided – contrast the two halves. WEST: Prosperous, helped by US, attracted people from the East. EAST: Much less prosperous and under Communist control
Focus on refugees from East Germany or East Berlin to West 1949-129,245 1953- 331,390 1955- 252,870 1961- 207,026 1962- 21,356 1963- 42,632 THE SITUATION IN 1961 On top of that East and West had different expectations regarding Berlin…
What they wanted The West Prevent USSR from gaining control of East Germany To see a united, democratic Germany The East Maintain control over East Germany Make the West recognise it as an independent state Stop the flood of refugees especially the skilled and professional ones – much needed in East Germany
Vienna Summit June 1961 Khrushchev Demanded withdrawal of Western forces from West Berlin Demanded Berlin was made as capital of East Germany Kennedy Refused Demanded Berlin was made into an international city under the UNO’s control
CONSEQUENCES 13-22 August – Khrushchev and East German government ordered barbed wire barrier across Berlin, followed by a wall of concrete blocks All of West Berlin encircled apart from access points Berlin Berlin was divided, free access ended between East and West, many families split, many attempted to escape to the West-between 1961 and 1989, 86 people died trying to cross the Berlin Wall (last Chris Gueffroy on the 2nd June, 1989 )
What did the Berlin Wall look like? The wall was 166 km long, 3.65m. tall long cut through 192 streets Made of concrete ‘modules’ 1.2m wide
President Kennedy arrived in Berlin on June 26, 1963, following appearances in Bonn, Cologne and Frankfurt, where he had given speeches to huge crowds. IN 1963… In Berlin, an immense crowd gathered near the Berlin Wall to listen to the President who delivered this memorable speech now famous ending.
I am proud to come to this city as the guest of your distinguished Mayor, who has symbolized throughout the world the fighting spirit of West Berlin. And I am proud to visit the Federal Republic with your distinguished Chancellor who for so many years has committed Germany to democracy and freedom and progress, and to come here in the company of my fellow American, General Clay, who has been in this city during its great moments of crisis and will come again if ever needed. Two thousand years ago the proudest boast was "civis Romanus sum." Today, in the world of freedom, the proudest boast is "Ich bin ein Berliner." I appreciate my interpreter translating my German! There are many people in the world who really don't understand, or say they don't, what is the great issue between the free world and the Communist world. Let them come to Berlin. There are some who say that communism is the wave of the future. Let them come to Berlin. And there are some who say in Europe and elsewhere we can work with the Communists. Let them come to Berlin. And there are even a few who say that it is true that communism is an evil system, but it permits us to make economic progress. Lass' sie nach Berlin kommen. Let them come to Berlin. Freedom has many difficulties and democracy is not perfect, but we have never had to put a wall up to keep our people in, to prevent them from leaving us. I want to say, on behalf of my countrymen, who live many miles away on the other side of the Atlantic, who are far distant from you, that they take the greatest pride that they have been able to share with you, even from a distance, the story of the last 18 years. I know of no town, no city, that has been besieged for 18 years that still lives with the vitality and the force, and the hope and the determination of the city of West Berlin. While the wall is the most obvious and vivid demonstration of the failures of the Communist system, for all the world to see, we take no satisfaction in it, for it is, as your Mayor has said, an offense not only against history but an offense against humanity, separating families, dividing husbands and wives and brothers and sisters, and dividing a people who wish to be joined together. What is true of this city is true of Germany--real, lasting peace in Europe can never be assured as long as one German out of four is denied the elementary right of free men, and that is to make a free choice. In 18 years of peace and good faith, this generation of Germans has earned the right to be free, including the right to unite their families and their nation in lasting peace, with good will to all people. You live in a defended island of freedom, but your life is part of the main. So let me ask you as I close, to lift your eyes beyond the dangers of today, to the hopes of tomorrow, beyond the freedom merely of this city of Berlin, or your country of Germany, to the advance of freedom everywhere, beyond the wall to the day of peace with justice, beyond yourselves and ourselves to all mankind. Freedom is indivisible, and when one man is enslaved, all are not free. When all are free, then we can look forward to that day when this city will be joined as one and this country and this great Continent of Europe in a peaceful and hopeful globe. When that day finally comes, as it will, the people of West Berlin can take sober satisfaction in the fact that they were in the front lines for almost two decades. All free men, wherever they may live, are citizens of Berlin, and, therefore, as a free man, I take pride in the words "Ich bin ein Berliner." President John F. Kennedy - June 26, 1963
http://millercenter.virginia.edu/scripps/digit alarchive/speechDetail/27http://millercenter.virginia.edu/scripps/digit alarchive/speechDetail/27 http://www.berlinwall.net/ buy a piece of it !!!http://www.berlinwall.net/ http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/jfk- berliner.htm
Leslie Illingworth/ WELSH CARTOONIST 22 August 1962 QUESTIONS 1- Identify the document 2- What’s the message conveyed here?
Causes of uprising 1953 Death of Stalin & rise of moderniser, Nikita Khrushchev The ‘thaw’ -XXth congress CPSU October23rd 1956: revolt in Poland led to concessions to Poles- Wladislas Gomulka Desire for more economic & political freedom Resentment at presence of Russian troops (paid for by Hungarians) & influence of Russian culture & govt. on Hungarian life ( Learn Russian) Fifteen-year-old Hungarian rebel.
START On the afternoon of October 23, 1956, approximately 20,000 protesters convened next to the Bem statue in Budapest asking October 231956 Hard-line Communist leader of Hungary Matyas Rakosi ordered to retire ‘for health reasons’ by Kremlin: replaced by Erno Gero. Imry Nagy appointed Prime minister Oct 25th: he called to form aa neutral, multiparty social democracysocial democracy
CONSEQUENCES Hungarian soldiers in Red Army defected Hungarians created own local councils instead of Communist soviets Censorship ended Nagy proposed withdrawal from Warsaw Pact & democratic elections
THE SOVIET REPLY 4 November 1956, Red Army came 30,000 Hungarians killed; 200,000 fled to West Nagy arrested & executed (Nagy was secretly tried, found guilty, sentenced to death and executed by hanging in June, 1958 ) Reforms reversed Hard-line govt. under Janos Kadar re- established
Soviet version of events published in the Pravda in November 56 on October 23, the "honest" socialist Hungarians demonstrated against mistakes made by the Rákosi and Gerő governmentsOctober 23RákosiGerő fascist, Hitlerite, reactionary, counter-revolutionary hooligans financed by the imperialist west took advantage of the unrest to stage a counter- revolution the honest Hungarian people under Nagy appealed to Soviet (Warsaw Pact) forces stationed in Hungary to assist in restoring order the Nagy government was ineffective Hungarian patriots under Kádár broke with the Nagy government and formed a government of honest Hungarian revolutionary workers and peasants and smashed the counter-revolutionKádár
THE AFTERMATH In Hungary -200,000 Hungarians fled Hungary -26,000 were put on trial by the Kádár government, : 13,000 were imprisoned. and 350 were executed -2500 à 3000 deaths 13000 wounded International -At the Melbourne Olympics in 1956, the Soviet handling of the Hungarian uprising led to a boycott by Spain, the Netherlands and Switzerland ( « blood in the water match water polo »).Melbourne Olympics
Leslie Illigworth( welsh cartoonist). October 1956 QUESTIONS 1-Introduce the document 2 -Comment on the “satisfied customers” 3 -Why is Poland referred to in this cartoon? 4 -What was the outcome of this crisis? 5 -Is this document biased?
WHAT HAPPENED? Cuba, small island, 160 km from coast of Florida US ally, US businesses & US military base (Guantanamo) Domino theory 1959, Fidel Castro overthrows Battista (US-backed dictator), and establish a Communist government. Castro takes over US businesses January 1961, US breaks off diplomatic relations April, 1961, Bay of Pigs – 1,400 anti- Cuban exiles attempted to overthrow Castro Autumn 1962, Cuba has received 1000s of USSR missiles and some launchers were set AMERICAN REPLY
Why was the USSR interested in helping Cuba? Cuba was a new Communist state and an “open door “ to South America Cuba provided a launch base for USSR inter- continental missiles (ICMs) Khrushchev wanted to test strength of new US president, JFK Khrushchev wanted to force JFK into bargaining/negotiating over US missiles in Europe (Turkey )
What happened during the October Crisis? 14 October 1962, US U2 spy plane took photos of suspected USSR missile sites on Cuba US spy planes identified 20 Soviet ships bound for Cuba carrying missiles
THE AMERICAN REACTION 20 October, Kennedy decided to blockade Cuba 23 October Khrushchev refused to acknowledge blockade or presence of Soviet missiles on Cuba 22 October, Kennedy publicly called on Khrushchev to remove weapons 27 October, US U2 plane shot down over Cuba & pilot killed. THE WORLD WAS ON THE VERGE OF A NUCLEAR WAR
HOW WAS THE WAR AVOIDED? 26 October, Kennedy received a letter from Khrushchev offering to negotiate over missiles in Cuba with removal of blockade and US invasion threat 27 October, Kennedy received second letter calling for withdrawal of US missiles in Turkey too 28 October, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle Soviet missiles in Cuba THE CRISIS WAS OVER
What was the outcome of the crisis? Cuba remained Communist & heavily armed (without nuclear missiles) Helped renew the thaw – world saw the futility of MAD ( Mutually Assured Destruction ) Permanent hotline between White House & Kremlin set up Peaceful co-existence