Presentation on theme: "13 Days that Changed the almost changed World"— Presentation transcript:
113 Days that Changed the almost changed World Cuban Missile Crisis13 Days that Changed the almost changed World
2The Cuban Missile Crisis brought the world to the brink of nuclear war in October 1962.
3Lesson overview What was the background to the events in Cuba? How successful were early attempts at ‘containment’?Why was the USSR interested in helping Cuba?What happened during the October Crisis?What was the outcome of the crisis?
5Setting the Stage The Truman Doctrine The Marshall Plan Containment The Domino TheoryThe Berlin BlockadeThe Berlin WallWhy are these events so important when trying to understand the Cold War?Based on your knowledge of the Cold War, outline the reasons why your historical policy or event helped increase the tension at the outset of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
6What was the background to the events in Cuba? Cuba, small island, 160 km from coast of FloridaUS ally, US businesses & US military base (Guantanamo)1959, Fidel Castro overthrows Battista (US-backed dictator), establishing Communist government.Why was Cuba so important to the Americans?
7How successful were early attempts at ‘containment’? Castro takes over US businessesJanuary 1961, US breaks off diplomatic relationsApril, 1961, Bay of Pigs – 1,400 anti-Cuban exiles attempted to overthrow CastroAutumn 1962, Cuba has received 1000s of USSR missiles, jets, boats & personnelThe US committed $100 million to overthrowing Castro, the CIA tried to sabotage the economy, they even planned to send him an exploding cigar! Why did they go to such lengths after April 1961?
8The Bay of Pigs Invasion The 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion was an unsuccessful attempt at invasion following the Cuban Revolution that saw Fidel Castro come to powerIt was planned and funded by the United StatesThe invasion was carried out by armed Cuban exiles in southwest Cuba.This action accelerated a rapid deterioration in Cuban-American relations worsened by the Cuban Missile Crisis the following year.
9Why was the USSR interested in helping Cuba? Cuba was a new Communist stateCuba provided a launch base for USSR inter-continental missiles (ICMs)Khrushchev wanted to test strength of new US president, JFKKhrushchev wanted to force JFK into bargaining over US missile in EuropeWhy does this cartoonist think that Khrushchev was interested in Cuba?
10The Escalation Ladder Do Nothing Go to the United Nations Naval BlockadeStrategic Air strikeFull Invasion of CubaWhich policy do you think the USA should have employed with the Soviets?In groups of 5 or 6 which I will choose – make a case for your option.
11What happened during the October Crisis? Why have some modern historians questioned the accuracy of these spy plane pictures?14 October 1962, US U2 spy plane takes photos of suspected USSR missile sites on CubaSites nearing completion, experts believe they could be ready in 7 daysUS spy planes identify 20 Soviet ships bound for Cuba carrying missiles
12One of our U-2 flights over Cuba has revealed what analysts believe to be nuclear missiles. Sir, the missiles look to be from the Soviet Union.
14 Your taskYou are about to find out what actually happened during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Complete a timeline in your notes. There are 10 key events to include.
15It’s time to discuss military options sir It’s time to discuss military options sir. The Soviets still deny that there are nuclear missiles in Cuba.
16What happened during the October Crisis? 20 October, Kennedy decides to blockade Cuba22 October, Kennedy publicly calls on Khrushchev to remove weapons
17What happened during the October Crisis? 23 October Khrushchev refuses to acknowledge blockade or presence of Soviet missiles on Cuba24 October, 1st Soviet ships (accompanied by submarine) approach 800 km exclusion zone
18What happened during the October Crisis? 24 October, 10:32 am, Soviet ships stop and turn round25 October, aerial photos show continued construction of missile sites26 October, Kennedy receives another letter offering to negotiate over missiles in Cuba with removal of blockade and US invasion threat27 October, Kennedy receives second letter calling for withdrawal of US missiles in Turkey too
19What happened during the October Crisis? 27 October, US U2 plane shot down over Cuba & pilot killed.Kennedy decides to ignore second letter, but accepts terms of 1st letter28 October, Khrushchev agrees to dismantle Soviet missiles in CubaWhat is this cartoonist trying to say about the difficulties facing Kennedy during the Crisis?
20The American DecisionIn September Kennedy had stated and Congress had passed a resolution saying that if the Soviet Union placed offensive weapons in Cuba we would not tolerate it.Could we then rely solely on diplomacy? Kennedys thought John could be “impeached” if he didn’t act in accordance with his prior warningsDetermined in first 48 hours of crisis that the removal of missiles was the primary objectiveThis objective effectively ruled out isolated diplomacy, and left two options…
21Castro’s Role No real role in decision making Apparently out of touch with the situationOct. 26: “Aggression imminent/imperialists disregarding world opinion”—Clearly not the caseKhrushchev plays along to some extent but it is clear he disagrees with him (“your suggestion would have started a thermonuclear world war”)
22What was the outcome of the crisis? Cuba remained Communist & heavily armed (without nuclear missiles)Both leaders didn’t lose face and came away with concessionsHelped renew the thaw – world saw the futility of MADPermanent hotline between White House & Kremlin set upSupported theory of containment & co-existence because alternatives unimaginable
23Who do you think won the missile crisis? Kennedy, Khrushchev or neither? Explain your answer.
24HomeworkWrite a short press release explaining the background, key events & outcome for the Soviet news agency ‘Pravda’ and for the White House spokesmen’s speech to journalists.