3Lesson overview What was the background to the events in Cuba? How successful were early attempts at ‘containment’?Why was the USSR interested in helping Cuba?What happened during the October Crisis?What was the outcome of the crisis?
4What was the background to the events in Cuba? Cuba, small island, 160 km from coast of FloridaUS ally, US businesses & US military base (Guantanamo)1959, Fidel Castro overthrows Battista (US-backed dictator), establishing Communist government.Why was Cuba so important to the Americans?
5How successful were early attempts at ‘containment’? Castro takes over US businessesJanuary 1961, US breaks off diplomatic relationsApril, 1961, Bay of Pigs – 1,400 anti-Cuban exiles attempted to overthrow CastroAutumn 1962, Cuba has received 1000s of USSR missiles, jets, boats & personnelThe US committed $100 million to overthrowing Castro, the CIA tried to sabotage the economy, they even planned to send him an exploding cigar! Why did they go to such lengths after April 1961?
6Why was the USSR interested in helping Cuba? Cuba was a new Communist stateCuba provided a launch base for USSR inter-continental missiles (ICMs)Khrushchev wanted to test strength of new US president, JFKKhrushchev wanted to force JFK into bargaining over US missile in EuropeWhy does this cartoonist think that Khrushchev was interested in Cuba?
7What happened during the October Crisis? Why have some modern historians questioned the accuracy of these spy plane pictures?14 October 1962, US U2 spy plane takes photos of suspected USSR missile sites on CubaSites nearing completion, experts believe they could be ready in 7 daysUS spy planes identify 20 Soviet ships bound for Cuba carrying missiles
8Castro’s Role No real role in decision making Apparently out of touch with the situationOct. 26: “Aggression imminent/imperialists disregarding world opinion”—Clearly not the caseKhrushchev plays along to some extent but it is clear he disagrees with him (“your suggestion would have started a thermonuclear world war”)
9 Your taskPresident John F Kennedy was faced with a number of extremely difficult decisions that could decide the fate of the world! With your partner, discuss the option choice with regard to advantages and disadvantages. We will determine two key options based on your analysis.Problem-solving task
10One of our U-2 flights over Cuba has revealed what analysts believe to be nuclear missiles. Sir, the missiles look to be from the Soviet Union.
12 Your taskYou are about to find out what actually happened during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Examine the timeline in your notes. When was the crisis at its peak?
13It’s time to discuss military options sir It’s time to discuss military options sir. The Soviets still deny that there are nuclear missiles in Cuba.
14What happened during the October Crisis? 20 October, Kennedy decides to blockade Cuba22 October, Kennedy publicly calls on Khrushchev to remove weapons
15What happened during the October Crisis? 23 October Khrushchev refuses to acknowledge blockade or presence of Soviet missiles on Cuba24 October, 1st Soviet ships (accompanied by submarine) approach 800 km exclusion zone
16What happened during the October Crisis? 24 October, 10:32 am, Soviet ships stop and turn round25 October, aerial photos show continued construction of missile sites26 October, Kennedy receives another letter offering to negotiate over missiles in Cuba with removal of blockade and US invasion threat27 October, Kennedy receives second letter calling for withdrawal of US missiles in Turkey too
17The American DecisionIn September Kennedy had stated and Congress had passed a resolution saying that if the Soviet Union placed offensive weapons in Cuba we would not tolerate it.Could we then rely solely on diplomacy? The Kennedys thought the President could be “impeached” if he didn’t act in accordance with his prior warningsDetermined in first 48 hours of crisis that the removal of missiles was the primary objectiveThis objective effectively ruled out isolated diplomacy, and left two options…
18What happened during the October Crisis? 27 October, US U2 plane shot down over Cuba & pilot killed. Kennedy decides to ignore second letter, but accepts terms of 1st letter28 October, Khrushchev agrees to dismantle Soviet missiles in CubaWhat is this cartoonist trying to say about the difficulties facing Kennedy during the Crisis?
19What was the outcome of the crisis? Cuba remained Communist & heavily armed (without nuclear missiles)Both leaders didn’t lose face and came away with concessionsHelped renew the thaw – world saw the futility of MADPermanent hotline between White House & Kremlin set upSupported theory of containment & co-existence because alternatives unimaginable
20 Your taskSourcesRead sources 21 & 22. What do you think of Kennedy’s interpretation of the Cuban situation and of Khrushchev’s actions?Read sources 28, 29 and 30. How useful they are to students studying the results of the Cuban Missile Crisis?Who do you think won the missile crisis? Kennedy, Khrushchev or neither? Explain your answer.
21 Extension taskWrite two press releases. Choose either to produce a short press release explaining the background, key events & outcome for the Soviet news agency ‘Pravda’ OR write an American version of events for the White House spokesman’s speech to journalists.
22Congratulations Mr. President, Khrushchev is removing the missiles from Cuba. We made the right choices.