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IMPROVING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press.

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Presentation on theme: "IMPROVING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press."— Presentation transcript:

1 IMPROVING VOCABULARY SKILLS Fourth Edition Sherrie L. Nist © 2010 Townsend Press

2 Unit Three: Chapter 14 alleviate infamous benefactor intrinsic covert revulsion cynic speculate demisevirile

3 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 1 alleviate Alleviate means A. to consider. B. to hide. C. to ease. To alleviate his loneliness, the widower moved closer to his daughter and her family. After a long game in the August heat, the young baseball players alleviated their thirst with ice-cold lemonade. “I find a good workout is the best way to alleviate stress.” – verb

4 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Alleviate means A. to consider. B. to hide. C. to ease. To alleviate his loneliness, the widower moved closer to his daughter and her family. After a long game in the August heat, the young baseball players alleviated their thirst with ice-cold lemonade. If the widower moved closer to his daughter, it must have been to ease his loneliness. Ice-cold lemonade would ease the baseball players’ thirst. 1 alleviate – verb “I find a good workout is the best way to alleviate stress.”

5 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 2 benefactor – noun Benefactor means A. a financial supporter. B. a social critic. C. a cooperative person. The Second Street Bank is a long-time benefactor of the arts. This year it will sponsor a series of free jazz concerts in the parks. The wealthy benefactor who paid for the child’s operation prefers to remain anonymous.

6 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Benefactor means A. a financial supporter. B. a social critic. C. a cooperative person. The Second Street Bank is a long-time benefactor of the arts. This year it will sponsor a series of free jazz concerts in the parks. The wealthy benefactor who paid for the child’s operation prefers to remain anonymous. The word sponsor in the first item and the words paid for in the second item tell you that benefactor means “a financial supporter.” 2 benefactor – noun

7 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 3 covert Miriam and David’s relationship is so covert that they never eat out. Even their best friends don’t know they are seeing each other. If you enjoy covert activities, you should become a secret agent. – adjective Covert means A. obvious. B. concealed. C. easy to bear.

8 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. 3 covert Miriam and David’s relationship is so covert that they never eat out. Even their best friends don’t know they are seeing each other. If you enjoy covert activities, you should become a secret agent. – adjective Covert means A. obvious. B. concealed. C. easy to bear. If Miriam and David’s best friends don’t know they are seeing each other, their relationship must be concealed. Secret agents are known for carrying out concealed or secret activities. 3 covert – adjective

9 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Her parents’ nasty divorce has made Libby a cynic about marriage. Mr. Bryant was a cynic about people until he fell down on a street corner and several strangers rushed to his aid. 4 cynic Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Cynic means A. someone who believes the worst. B. someone who gives help. C. someone with a bad reputation – noun

10 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Her parents’ nasty divorce has made Libby a cynic about marriage. Mr. Bryant was a cynic about people until he fell down on a street corner and several strangers rushed to his aid. Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Cynic means A. someone who believes the worst. B. someone who gives help. C. someone with a bad reputation Witnessing a nasty divorce could make one believe the worst about marriage. Mr. Bryant stopped believing the worst about people after strangers rushed to help him when he was in trouble. 4 cynic – noun

11 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Demise means A. popularity. B. a secret. C. dying. 5 demise – noun In 1567, a beard caused a man’s demise. Hans Steininger’s beard was so long that he stepped on it while climbing stairs, lost his balance, fell down the steps, and died. During my years in grade school and high school, the untimely demise of several of my classmates made me very aware of my mortality.

12 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Demise means A. popularity. B. a secret. C. dying. 5 demise – noun In 1567, a beard caused a man’s demise. Hans Steininger’s beard was so long that he stepped on it while climbing stairs, lost his balance, fell down the steps, and died. During my years in grade school and high school, the untimely demise of several of my classmates made me very aware of my mortality. In the first item, the word died tells you that demise means “dying.” In the second item, the word mortality suggests that the person is talking about classmates who died. 5 demise – noun

13 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Infamous means A. known unfavorably. B. thought to be annoying. C. giving hope. King Henry VIII of England was infamous throughout Europe for executing two of his six wives. Visitors to the dungeons of ancient castles always want to see the instruments of torture, including the infamous Iron Maiden— body-shaped box with spikes inside. 6 infamous – adjective

14 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Infamous means A. known unfavorably. B. thought to be annoying. C. giving hope. King Henry VIII of England was infamous throughout Europe for executing two of his six wives. Visitors to the dungeons of ancient castles always want to see the instruments of torture, including the infamous Iron Maiden— body-shaped box with spikes inside. Executing one’s wives would make one known unfavorably. A body-shaped box with spikes inside would be known unfavorably. 6 infamous – adjective

15 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Intrinsic means A. secret. B. fundamental. C. unnecessary. Trust is intrinsic to any good friendship. Because Lian has an intrinsic desire to learn, she doesn’t need the reward of good grades to motivate her studies. 7 intrinsic – adjective

16 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Intrinsic means A. secret. B. fundamental. C. unnecessary. Trust is intrinsic to any good friendship. Because Lian has an intrinsic desire to learn, she doesn’t need the reward of good grades to motivate her studies. Trust is fundamental to a good friendship. If Lian doesn’t need any reward to motivate her to study, she must have a fundamental desire to learn. 7 intrinsic – adjective

17 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Revulsion means A. interest. B. hatred. C. understanding. Whenever I read about child abuse in the newspaper, I am filled with such revulsion that I often cannot finish the article. When Sharon met the man who had cheated her father, she was overcome with revulsion. 8 revulsion – noun

18 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Revulsion means A. interest. B. hatred. C. understanding. Whenever I read about child abuse in the newspaper, I am filled with such revulsion that I often cannot finish the article. When Sharon met the man who had cheated her father, she was overcome with revulsion. Reading about child abuse can fill one with hatred. It would be natural for Sharon to feel hatred toward the man who cheated her father. 8 revulsion – noun

19 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Speculate means A. to remember. B. to announce. C. to guess. It’s interesting to speculate how history might have been different if Abraham Lincoln had lived a few years longer. The therapist asked Cassie to speculate about what might happen if she told Leon her true feelings. 9 speculate – verb

20 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Speculate means A. to remember. B. to announce. C. to guess. It’s interesting to speculate how history might have been different if Abraham Lincoln had lived a few years longer. The therapist asked Cassie to speculate about what might happen if she told Leon her true feelings. We can only guess how things might have been different if Lincoln had lived longer. Cassie can only guess what might happen if she tells Leon her true feelings. 9 speculate – verb

21 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Virile means A. having attractive male qualities. B. lacking in confidence. C. unselfish. 10 virile Men who are unsure about their masculinity sometimes try to “prove” they are virile by being overly aggressive. When a male heron stamps his feet and sticks his neck out, and then drops his head and says “plop-buzz,” the female finds him very virile. In fact, that behavior is how the male attracts a mate. – adjective Virile football players

22 TEN WORDS IN CONTEXT Choose the meaning closest to that of the boldfaced word. Virile means A. having attractive male qualities. B. lacking in confidence. C. unselfish. Men who are unsure about their masculinity sometimes try to “prove” they are virile by being overly aggressive. When a male heron stamps his feet and sticks his neck out, and then drops his head and says “plop-buzz,” the female finds him very virile. In fact, that behavior is how the male attracts a mate. A man who is unsure about his masculinity would try to prove he had manly qualities. In the second item, if the male heron’s behavior attracts a mate, the female must feel it shows he has attractive male qualities. 10 virile – adjective Virile football players

23 SENTENCE CHECK 1 1.Problems are __________ to life; they’re unavoidable. 2.My hunger isn’t fully satisfied, but the apple _______(e)d it somewhat. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. alleviateB. benefactorC. covertD. cynicE.demise F. infamousG. intrinsicH. revulsionI. speculateJ. virile

24 SENTENCE CHECK 1 1.Problems are __________ to life; they’re unavoidable. 2.My hunger isn’t fully satisfied, but the apple __________ it somewhat. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. alleviateB. benefactorC. covertD. cynicE.demise F. infamousG. intrinsicH. revulsionI. speculateJ. virile If problems are unavoidable, they must be part of the very nature of life. An apple would relieve hunger. intrinsic alleviated

25 3.Teenage guys usually welcome a deepening voice and a thickening beard as signs that they are becoming more __________. SENTENCE CHECK 1 4.The selfless work of the nuns in the slums of India is enough to touch the hearts of most hardened _________s. 5.Though she was tried and found not guilty, Lizzie Borden is still __________ for killing her parents with a hatchet. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. alleviateB. benefactorC. covertD. cynicE.demise F. infamousG. intrinsicH. revulsionI. speculateJ. virile

26 3.Teenage guys usually welcome a deepening voice and a thickening beard as signs that they are becoming more __________. SENTENCE CHECK 1 4.The selfless work of the nuns in the slums of India is enough to touch the hearts of most hardened _________. 5.Though she was tried and found not guilty, Lizzie Borden is still __________ for killing her parents with a hatchet. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. alleviateB. benefactorC. covertD. cynicE.demise F. infamousG. intrinsicH. revulsionI. speculateJ. virile virile cynics infamous These changes would make them seem more manly. Seeing such work would touch the hearts of even those who believe the worst about people. A woman accused of killing her parents with a hatchet would be widely known for being vicious.

27 6.The children loved the __________ activities involved in preparing their mother’s surprise party. SENTENCE CHECK 1 7.The mass murderer’s neighbors were overcome with __________ when they learned what their “friend” had been doing in his basement. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. alleviateB. benefactorC. covertD. cynicE.demise F. infamousG. intrinsicH. revulsionI. speculateJ. virile

28 6.The children loved the __________ activities involved in preparing their mother’s surprise party. SENTENCE CHECK 1 7.The mass murderer’s neighbors were overcome with __________ when they learned what their “friend” had been doing in his basement. Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. alleviateB. benefactorC. covertD. cynicE.demise F. infamousG. intrinsicH. revulsionI. speculateJ. virile If the party was to be a surprise, the preparations would have to be secret. If the man has been killing people in his basement, the neighbors would be overcome with disgust. covert revulsion

29 9.Roger Novak had been a well-known __________ of AIDS research, so it was no surprise that he left a lot of money for the research in his will. 8.“As no group has claimed responsibility, we can only __________ on the motives for the bombing,” said the newscaster. SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. alleviateB. benefactorC. covertD. cynicE.demise F. infamousG. intrinsicH. revulsionI. speculateJ. virile 10.It’s a good idea for married couples to discuss their funeral plans in case of each other’s __________. For example, do they wish to be buried or cremated?

30 9.Roger Novak had been a well-known __________ of AIDS research, so it was no surprise that he left a lot of money for the research in his will. 10.It’s a good idea for married couples to discuss their funeral plans in case of each other’s __________. For example, do they wish to be buried or cremated? 8.“As no group has claimed responsibility, we can only __________ on the motives for the bombing,” said the newscaster. SENTENCE CHECK 1 Complete each item with the correct word from the box. A. alleviateB. benefactorC. covertD. cynicE.demise F. infamousG. intrinsicH. revulsionI. speculateJ. virile speculate benefactor demise People can only guess at the motives for the bombing. The fact that Novak “left a lot of money for research” tells you that a benefactor is a person who gives financial aid. Burial and cremation are two ways to handle the body after death.


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