Presentation on theme: "Chapter 35 America in World War II, 1941–1945. Chapter 35 Learning Objectives After mastering this chapter, you should be able to: 1.Indicate how America."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 35 Learning Objectives After mastering this chapter, you should be able to: 1.Indicate how America reacted to Pearl Harbor and prepared to wage war against both Germany and Japan. 2.Describe the mobilization of the American economy for war and the mobilization of manpower and womanpower for both the military and wartime production. 3.Describe the war’s effects on American society, to include regional migration, race relations, and women’s roles. 4.Explain the early Japanese successes in East Asia and the Pacific, and the American strategy for countering them. 5.Describe the early Allied invasion o North Africa and Italy, the strategic tensions with the Soviet Union over the Second Front And the invasion of Normandy in 1944. 6.Discuss FDR’s successful 1944 campaign against Thomas Dewey for a fourth term and his controversial choice of a new vice president. 7.Explain the final military efforts that brought Allied victory in Europe and Asia and the significance of the atomic bomb.
Invasion of the Soviet Union It was then that Hitler made his pivotal mistake. He invaded the Soviet Union. – The obliteration of Bolshevism was a key element of Hitler’s ideology; however, it was a gigantic military mistake. On June 22, 1941, Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa, consisting of an attack army of 4 million men spread out along a 2,000-mile front in three massive offensives. The German army quickly advanced, but at a terrifying cost. For the next three years, 90 percent of German deaths would happen on the eastern front.
The Big Three – Great Britain (Winston Churchill) – The U.S. (FDR) – The Soviet Union (Joseph Stalin) Strategies for War – Defeat Germany first The Grand Alliance
I. The Allies Trade Space for Time After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, America goes from Isolationist to working to win the war FDR went with idea of beat Germany first then into the Pacific America had to mobilize quickly on two fronts (Against Germany and Japan)
II. The Shock of War The war effort required all of America’s huge productive capacity and full employment of the workforce. – Government expenditures soared. U.S. budget increases – 1940 $9 million – 1944 $100 million – Expenditures in WWII greater than all previous government budgets combined (150 years) – GNP 1939 91 billion 1945 166 million
III. Building the War Machine The war effort required all of America’s huge productive capacity and full employment of the workforce. – Government expenditures soared. U.S. budget increases – 1940 $9 million – 1944 $100 million – Expenditures in WWII greater than all previous government budgets combined (150 years) – GNP 1939 91 billion 1945 166 million
VI. Holding the Home Front Restoration of U.S. Prosperity World War II ended the Great Depression. Factories run at full capacity – Ford Motor Company – one bomber plane per hour People save money (rationing) Army bases in South provide economic boom (most bases in South b/c of climate) The national debt grew to $260 billion (6 times its size on Dec. 7, 1941)
Gloomy Prospects for the Allied Powers By the end of 1942, the Allies faced defeat. – The chain of spectacular victories disguised fatal weaknesses within the Axis alliance: Japan and Germany fought separate wars, each on two fronts. They never coordinated strategies. – The early defeats also obscured the Allies’ strengths: The manpower of the Soviet Union and the productive capacity of the United States.
p800 Campaign Against the Japanese, Hollywood, California, 1923 Long
p801 Japanese American Evacuees, 1942 After the U.S. Army’s Western Defense Command ordered the forced evacuation of
p801 Three Boys at Manzanar, by Toyo Miyatake (1895–1979) Miyatake was an acclaimed Japanese American photographer with his own studio in Los Angeles before he and his family were evacuated to the Manzanar internment camp. He was determined to pursue his craft there, at first working secretly and then with the knowledge of the authorities. His pictures are the only photographic records of daily camp life taken by an internee. The guards allowed him to step outside the barbed-wire fence to take this photograph.
p802 Anti-Japanese Poster, World War II Government propaganda during the war exploited racial stereotypes, often depicting Japanese people with big teeth and poor vision.
p803 The Four Freedoms, by Norman Rockwell In his January 6, 1941, speech to Congress requesting lend-lease aid to the Allies, President Roosevelt spoke eloquently of the “four freedoms” then threatened by Nazi and Japanese aggression. They are here given pictorial representation by Norman Rockwell, probably the most popular and best loved American artist of the time.
p804 War Workers More than 6 million women—more than 3 million of them Homemakers who had never before worked for wages—entered the work force during World War II. In contrast to the experience of women workers in World War I, many of these newly employed women continued as wage workers after the war ended. IV. Manpower and Womanpower
p804 War Workers More than 6 million women—more than 3 million of them Homemakers who had never before worked for wages—entered the work force during World War II. In contrast to the experience of women workers in World War I, many of these newly employed women continued as wage workers after the war ended.
Map 35-1 p805 Internal Migration in the United States During World War II Few events in American history have moved the American people about so massively as World War II. The West and the South boomed, and several war-industry cities grew explosively. A majority of migrants from the South were blacks; 1.6 million African Americans left the region in the 1940s. (Source: United States Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.) V. Wartime Migrations
The Pacific Theater Within 6 months of Pearl Harbor, Japan had a new empire. – Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere Japanese racial purity and supremacy – Treated Chinese and Koreans with brutality. “Rape of Nanjing”- Japanese slaughtered at least 100,000 civilians and raped thousands of women in the Chinese capital between Dec. 1937 and Feb. 1938. – Could have consolidated – “victory disease” After Pearl Harbor, American military leaders focused on halting the Japanese advance and mobilizing the whole nation for war.
The Pacific Theater: Early Battles American Forces halted the Japanese advances in two decisive naval battles. – Coral Sea (May 1942) U.S. stopped a fleet convoying Japanese troops to New Guinea Japanese designs on Australia ended – Midway (June 1942) Japanese Admiral Yamamoto hoped to capture Midway Island as a base to attack Pearl Harbor again U.S. Admiral Chester Nimitz caught the Japanese by surprise and sank 3 of the 4 aircraft carriers, 332 planes, and 3500 men. – American cryptanalysts VIII. Japan’s High Tide at Midway
p806 Segregation in the Military A white officer reviews the 99th Pursuit Squadron, the famed “Tuskegee Airmen.” They flew more than sixteen hundred fighter-support missions in North Africa and compiled an outstanding record, never losing a bomber to enemy aircraft. But these fliers were among the few African Americans who saw combat duty in World War II, when a still strictly segregated military assigned most blacks to construction, longshoreman, and mess-hall service.
p806 Navajo Code Talkers, 1943 One of the best-kept secrets of World War II was the use of the Navajo language in a Marine Corps code designed to confuse the Japanese. Two marines in the leatherneck unit made up of Native Americans from Arizona and New Mexico transmitted in code during the battle for Bougainville Island in the South Pacific in 1943.
p807 Let John Henry Go” This image from the cover of the National Urban League’s publication Opportunity reflects the rising militancy of African Americans in the World War II era. That militancy helped to energize the civil rights movement in the postwar years.
VII. The Rising Sun in the Pacific Importance of Midway The Japanese defeat at Midway was the turning point in the Pacific. – Japanese advances stopped. – U.S. assumes initiative. – Japanese have shortage of able pilots. Censorship and Propaganda – News of the defeat was kept from the Japanese public.
Figure 35-1 p808 Figure 35.1 The National Debt, 1930–1950 Contrary to much popular mythology, it was World War II, not the New Deal, that first ballooned the national debt. The debt accumulated to still greater amounts in the 1980s and 1990s, and exploded with the onset of the “Great Recession”
The Turn of the Tide in Europe Defeat of the Axis Powers The turning point of the war came in 1942-43. Allied victory in North Africa was followed by an invasion of Italy, which stopped the Axis powers’ string of victories. The decisive theater of war, however, was the eastern front.
X. The Allied Halting of Hitler Turning Points of the War: The Battle of Stalingrad The Battle of Stalingrad was the turning point of the war. The German Army (Wehrmacht) had already lost 2 million men on the eastern front. In 1942-43, a German army of over 300,000 was defeated and captured at the Battle of Stalingrad. The Germans then lost the battle of Kursk and began a long retreat. The Red Army crossed into Poland in January 1944.
Map 35-3 p811 United States Thrusts in the Pacific, 1942–1945 American strategists had to choose among four proposed plans for waging the war against Japan: 1. Defeating the Japanese in China by funneling supplies over the Himalayan “hump” from India. 2. Carrying the war into Southeast Asia (a proposal much favored by the British, who could thus regain Singapore). 3. Heavy bombing of Japan from Chinese air bases. 4. “Island hopping” from the South Pacific to within striking distance of the Japanese home islands. This strategy, favored by General Douglas MacArthur, was the one finally emphasized. IX. American Leapfrogging Toward Tokyo
XI. A Second Front from North Africa to Rome Turning Points of the War: Western Front Operation Torch (1943) – Allied victory in North Africa and invasion of Italy. – Sicily – Then to Rome – Patton’s initiative quickly defeated the Italians and the German by taking Massena and Palermo
p812 Women at War Members of the Women’s Army Corps disembark in North Africa in 1944. (Note: “Auxillary” was dropped from the name in 1943.)
p813 The Big Two British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt meet at the Casablanca conference in Morocco, January 1943. The two leaders had a remarkable personal relationship that shaped the outcome of World War II and the course of history. They met in person nine times over the course of the war. “It is fun to be in the same decade with you,” FDR cabled to Churchill after one of their meetings. As for Churchill, who was desperate for American aid in the struggle against Hitler, he once commented that “No lover ever studied the whims of his mistress as I did those of Franklin Roosevelt.”
XII. D-Day: June 6, 1944 D-Day: Operation Overlord The Allied needed to establish a second front. General Dwight Eisenhower launched an invasion of Normandy on June 6, 1944. An invasion fleet of some 4,000 ships and 150,000 men (57,000 U.S.) Invasion successful. 5,000 killed and wounded Allied troops. It allowed them to gain a foothold on the continent from which they could push Germany back.
p814 Allies Landing in Normandy, June 6, 1944 Nine-foot ocean swells on invasion day made loading the assault landing craft, such as the one pictured here, treacherous business. Many men were injured or tossed into the sea as the bathtub like amphibious vessels bobbed wildly up and down alongside the troop transports. As the vulnerable boats churned toward the beach, some officers led their tense, grim-faced troops in prayer. One major, recalling the remarkable Battle of Agincourt in 1415, quoted from Shakespeare’s Henry V: “He that outlives this day, and comes safe home / Will stand a tip-toe when this day is named.”
XIII. FDR: The Fourth-Termite of 1944 XIV. Roosevelt Defeats Dewey Unprecedented 4 th Term Roosevelt will Not live to see The end of the war He dies April 12 1945
Map 35-4 p815 World War II in Europe and North Africa, 1939–1945
XV. The Last Days of Hitler Race to Berlin D-Day was the turning point of the western front. Stalingrad was the turning point of the eastern front. The British, U.S., and Free French armies began to press into western Germany as the Soviets invaded eastern Germany. Both sides raced to Berlin.
p816 American and Soviet Soldiers Meet in Germany, 1945 Such friendly sights soon became rare as mutual suspicion deepened.
Map 35-5 p816 Battle of the Bulge, December 1944–January 1945
p818 Victory in Europe Mussolini was captured and killed by Italian partisans and Hitler committed suicide in April 1945, as the Russian troops took Berlin. Germany surrendered unconditionally on May 7, 1945 (V-E Day). Fighting in the Pacific would continue until August.
p818 The Horror of the Holocaust Although the outside world had some knowledge of the Nazi death camps before the war’s end, the full revelation of Hitler’s atrocities as the Allies overran Germany in the spring of 1945 stunned and sickened the invading troops. At General Eisenhower’s orders, German civilians were compelled to view the evidence of the Nazi regime’s genocidal crimes— though these witnesses at Buchenwald tried to look the other way, as many had done during the war itself.
XVI. Japan Dies Hard The Beginning of the End in the Pacific Yamamoto is assassinated by the U.S. (April 1943) Loss of Saipan (August 1944) – “the naval and military heart and brain of Japanese defense strategy” – Political crisis in Japan The government could no longer hide the fact that they were losing the war. Tōjō resigns on July 18, 1944 Intensive air raids over Japan – Iwo Jima (February, 1945) American marines invaded this island, which was needed to provide fighter escort for bombings over Japan
p819 The Flag Raising at Iwo Jima Atop Mount Suribachi, press photographer Joe Rosenthal snapped this dramatic picture, probably the most famous of the war.
XVII. The Atomic Bombs August 6, 1945 – Enola Gay drops bomb on Hiroshima – 140,000 dead; tens of thousands injured; radiation sickness; 80% of buildings destroyed August 9, 1945 – Nagasaki – 70,000 dead; 60,000 injured Emperor Hirohito surrenders on Aug. 14, 1945. (V-J Day) – Formal surrender signed on September 2 onboard the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay
p820 Hiroshima, Japan, August 1945 The almost incomprehensibly destructive power of history’s first atomic bomb is vividly evident in this photograph. The single bomb killed an estimated 130,000 Japanese, many of whom succumbed months after the blast to agonizing deaths from exposure to radiation.
p821 The Japanese Surrender Representatives of the Japanese government arrived to sign the surrender document on the deck of the battleship Missouri in Tokyo harbor, September 2, 1945. General Douglas MacArthur then made a conciliatory address, expressing hope “that from this solemn occasion a better world shall emerge... A world founded on faith and understanding.” A Japanese diplomat attending wondered “whether it would have been possible for us, had we been victorious, to embrace the vanquished with a similar magnanimity.” Soon thereafter General MacArthur took up his duties as director of the U.S. occupation of Japan.
XVIII. The Allies Triumphant Cost of War Germany- 3 million combat deaths (3/4ths on the eastern front) Japan – over 1.5 combat deaths; 900,000 civilians dead Soviet Union - 13 million combat deaths U.S. – 300,000 combat deaths, over 100,000 other deaths When you include all combat and civilian deaths, World War II becomes the most destructive war in history with estimates as high as 60 million, including 25 million Russians.
p824 V-J Day: Crowds Cheering at Times Square, by Edward Dancig, 1947 Russian-born American artist Edward Dancig captured the feelings of triumph and relief that Americans felt at the end of World War II. His painting shows the V-J (Victory in Japan) Day celebration of August 15, 1945, in New York’s Times Square.