Presentation on theme: "WWII was fought on multiple fronts.. Multiple Front war A multiple front war divided the U.S. war efforts and fighting forces. The forces of the U.S."— Presentation transcript:
WWII was fought on multiple fronts.
Multiple Front war A multiple front war divided the U.S. war efforts and fighting forces. The forces of the U.S. were divided between confronting Germany and Italy in North Africa and Europe and confronting Japan in the Pacific.
Multiple Front War A multiple front war created a huge demand for wartime supplies and resources. The demand for men and supplies on all fronts challenged the resources of the United States and made the U.S. the major supplier for all the Allied Powers.
Strategic Objective 1. Hitler first: Churchill & FDR wanted to concentrate on defeating Germany before giving Japan higher priority. 1. Hitler first: Churchill & FDR wanted to concentrate on defeating Germany before giving Japan higher priority.
Axis Powers & Leaders Axis Powers - Germany, Italy, Japan. Axis Leaders: Adolf Hitler - Fascist dictator of Germany. Benito Mussolini - Fascist dictator of Italy. Hirohito - Emperor of Japan.
Allied Powers & Leaders Allied Powers - Great Britain, France, the U.S.S.R, and the United States [after 1941]. Allied Leaders: Winston Churchill - Prime Minister of Great Britain. Josef Stalin - Communist dictator of the U.S.S.R. Franklin D. Roosevelt - President of the United States, President Harry Truman after Roosevelt’s death in 1945
Advantages to the Allied Powers with the United States involved in the war 1. The capacity for war production of the United States provided a significant advantage. 2. Fresh troops could be obtained from the United States. The Allied countries were tired because they had been fighting somewhere in Europe since 1939.
Allied Turning Points in the War Battle of Stalingrad (Sept. 1942) First major German defeat on land.
D-Day June 6, 1944 D-Day (June 6, 1944): Invasion of Normandy -- "Operation Overlord" a. Perhaps war’s most important battle b. Commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower c. 120,000 troops left England and stormed 5 beachheads at Normandy Coast. i. 800,000 more men within 3 weeks; 3 million total Signaled the beginning of the liberation of Europe
Liberation of Europe Invasion of Germany a. Pre-invasion bombing i. Hamburg all but wiped out in summer 1943 ii. Berlin and other major cities and targets hit repeatedly especially factories and oil refineries.
Europe surrenders May 8, 1945
The Pacific Front Battle of Midway (June 4-7, 1942) – turning point in the Pacific war Japan never won another battle in the Pacific after the defeat at Midway. The US began Island Hopping towards the Japanese mainland
Island Hopping Island Hopping military strategy began in 1943 and involved the US forces attacking islands randomly as they made their way towards Japan. Allowed us to break through Japanese defenses and get closer to Japan
The bombing of Japan . Bombing of Japan resulted in destruction of most major cities -- March 1945, 100,000 die in a single Tokyo raid; 60% of buildings destroyed. At this point it did not look like the Japanese would surrender any time soon
Death of FDR Election of 1944 and death of FDR A. FDR, with running-mate Harry S. Truman, defeated Republican Thomas Dewey. -- FDR elected to an unprecedented fourth term in office. B. April 12, FDR died at Warm Springs, GA C. Vice President Harry Truman become president
Truman becomes President
The Manhattan Project Super Secret project to create the atomic bomb
The Manhattan project
The Atomic bomb August 6, First atomic bomb ("Little Boy") dropped on Hiroshima 1. 80,000 killed immediately; 100,000 injured -- Countless die later of radiation sickness or cancer 2. Bomb dropped by the Enola Gay 3. Japanese gov’t still did not surrender
V-J Day August 9, 2nd bomb ("Fat Man") dropped on Nagasaki; 60,000 dead F. August 14, Japan surrendered 1. World War II is over. 2. Sept 2, Japanese formally surrendered aboard U.S.S. Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
Decision to drop the Atomic Bomb The decision to drop the atomic bomb became controversial in later few decades. 1. Most compelling reason for dropping the bomb was that it saved countless U.S. lives who would have had to invade Japan.
Hiroshima after the bomb
The aftermath of the Atomic bomb
Important American Military Leaders Omar Bradley Omar Nelson Bradley, ( ), American general, who during World War II commanded the U. S. 12th Army Group in Europe. Took part in the invasion of Normandy – D-Day
Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight D. Eisenhower American general and 34th President of the United States was the principal architect of the successful Allied invasion of Europe during World War II and of the subsequent defeat of Nazi Germany. He led the assault on the French coast at Normandy, on June 6, 1944, and held together the Allied units through the European campaign that followed.
Douglas MacArthur 1880 – 1964 During World War II, MacArthur fought in Southeast Asia against Japan. After the defeat of his forces in the Philippines, he made his famous statement to the troops who were left behind: “I shall return.” He became Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific and took command of Australian, American, Dutch, and other Allied forces defending Australia, fighting mainly in and around New Guinea.
George Patton During World War II he served in North Africa and Sicily before becoming the commander of the Third Army. Patton distinguished himself in various World War II campaigns including the invasion of North Africa and the capture of Sicily.
Chester A. Nimitz In December 1941, however, he was designated as Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas, where he served throughout the war. On December 19, 1944, he was advanced to the newly created rank of Fleet Admiral. He commanded American forces during their long advance across the Pacific to full victory in August 1945.