2Multiple Front warA multiple front war divided the U.S. war efforts and fighting forces. The forces of the U.S. were divided between confronting Germany and Italy in North Africa and Europe and confronting Japan in the Pacific.
3Multiple Front WarA multiple front war created a huge demand for wartime supplies and resources. The demand for men and supplies on all fronts challenged the resources of the United States and made the U.S. the major supplier for all the Allied Powers.
4Strategic Objective 1. Hitler first: Churchill & FDR wanted to concentrate on defeating Germany before giving Japan higher priority.
5Axis Powers & LeadersAxis Powers - Germany, Italy, Japan. Axis Leaders:• Adolf Hitler - Fascist dictator of Germany.• Benito Mussolini - Fascist dictator of Italy.• Hirohito - Emperor of Japan.
6Allied Powers & Leaders Allied Powers - Great Britain, France, the U.S.S.R, and the United States [after 1941]. Allied Leaders:• Winston Churchill - Prime Minister of Great Britain.• Josef Stalin - Communist dictator of the U.S.S.R.• Franklin D. Roosevelt - President of the United States, President Harry Truman after Roosevelt’s death in 1945
7Advantages to the Allied Powers with the United States involved in the war 1. The capacity for war production of the United States provided a significant advantage.2. Fresh troops could be obtained from the United States. The Allied countries were tired because they had been fighting somewhere in Europe since 1939.
8Allied Turning Points in the War Battle of Stalingrad (Sept. 1942) First major German defeat on land.
9D-Day June 6, 1944D-Day (June 6, 1944): Invasion of Normandy -- "Operation Overlord"a. Perhaps war’s most important battle b. Commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower c. 120,000 troops left England and stormed 5 beachheads at Normandy Coast. i. 800,000 more men within 3 weeks; 3 million totalSignaled the beginning of the liberation of Europe
10Liberation of EuropeInvasion of Germany a. Pre-invasion bombing i. Hamburg all but wiped out in summer ii. Berlin and other major cities and targets hit repeatedlyespecially factories and oil refineries.
12The Pacific FrontBattle of Midway (June 4-7, 1942) – turning point in the Pacific war Japan never won another battle in the Pacific after the defeat at Midway. The US began Island Hopping towards the Japanese mainland
13Island HoppingIsland Hopping military strategy began in 1943 and involved the US forces attacking islands randomly as they made their way towards Japan. Allowed us to break through Japanese defenses and get closer to Japan
16The bombing of Japan. Bombing of Japan resulted in destruction of most major cities -- March 1945, 100,000 die in a single Tokyo raid; 60% of buildings destroyed.At this point it did not look like the Japanese would surrender any time soon
17Death of FDRElection of 1944 and death of FDR A. FDR, with running-mate Harry S. Truman, defeated Republican Thomas Dewey. -- FDR elected to an unprecedented fourth term in office. B. April 12, FDR died at Warm Springs, GA C. Vice President Harry Truman become president
24The Atomic bombAugust 6, First atomic bomb ("Little Boy") dropped on Hiroshima 1. 80,000 killed immediately; 100,000 injured -- Countless die later of radiation sickness or cancer 2. Bomb dropped by the Enola Gay 3. Japanese gov’t still did not surrender
25V-J DayAugust 9, 2nd bomb ("Fat Man") dropped on Nagasaki; 60,000 dead F. August 14, Japan surrendered 1. World War II is over. 2. Sept 2, Japanese formally surrendered aboard U.S.S. Missouri inTokyo Bay.
26Decision to drop the Atomic Bomb The decision to drop the atomic bomb became controversial in later few decades. 1. Most compelling reason for dropping the bomb was that it savedcountless U.S. lives who would have had to invade Japan.
27photographed right after their return Crew of "Enola Gay"-photographed right after their return
32Important American Military Leaders Omar Bradley Omar Nelson Bradley, ( ), American general, who during World War II commanded the U. S. 12th Army Group in Europe.Took part in the invasion of Normandy – D-Day
33Dwight D. Eisenhower Dwight D. Eisenhower 1890-1969 American general and 34th President of the United States was the principal architect of the successful Allied invasion of Europe during World War II and of the subsequent defeat of Nazi Germany.He led the assault on the French coast at Normandy, on June 6, 1944, and held together the Allied units through the European campaign that followed.
34Douglas MacArthur – 1964During World War II, MacArthur fought in Southeast Asia against Japan. After the defeat of his forces in the Philippines, he made his famous statement to the troops who were left behind: “I shall return.”He became Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific and took command of Australian, American, Dutch, and other Allied forces defending Australia, fighting mainly in and around New Guinea.
35George PattonDuring World War II he served in North Africa and Sicily before becoming the commander of the Third Army.Patton distinguished himself in various World War II campaigns including the invasion of North Africa and the capture of Sicily.
36Chester A. NimitzIn December 1941, however, he was designated as Commander in Chief, Pacific Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas, where he served throughout the war.On December 19, 1944, he was advanced to the newly created rank of Fleet Admiral.He commanded American forces during their long advance across the Pacific to full victory in August 1945.