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The Looming Tower Chapters 11-20.

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Presentation on theme: "The Looming Tower Chapters 11-20."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Looming Tower Chapters 11-20

2 The Prince of Darkness- Chapter 11
John O’Neill Appointed chief of FBI’s counter-terrorism section Nicknamed the Prince of Darkness Was told by Dick Clarke that Ramzi Yousef was spotted in Islamabad Got team ready for rendition Legal kidnapping of suspects in a foreign land Very urgent and complex February 7th, agents flew to Islamabad and captured Ramzi Yousef Dick Clarke and O’Neill formed tight partnership Clarke the 1st coordinator for counterterrorism on the National Security Council Member of Counterterrorism Security Group Their work led to agencies working more in a partnership and opening lines of communication O’Neill worked hard to foster relationships with foreign dignitaries and public officials O’Neill one of the 1st to realize the scope of the Islamist terrorists

3 Bin Laden Argued his war was theological, Muslims v. Christians
August 1995 Broke with Saudi Arabia Attacked King Fahd in a manifesto Attacked lack of religion US Troops in the Kingdom Accused Royal Family of corruption Saudi Arabia responds with crackdown on dissidents Bin Laden responds with a car bomb at the Saudi National Guard center in Riyadh Men were rounded up and beheaded Bin Laden claimed as his 1st terrorist blow

4 Chapter 12- The Boy Spies Planned assassination of Mubark In Egypt
Egyptian President Hosni Mubark flew to Addis ababa June 26, 1996 Egyptian radicals working with the Islamic group planned assassination Mubarak attacked, two guards killed Smart enough to drive back to airport, saved his life Three assassins captured Led to U.N. sanctions on Sudan In Egypt Sweeping changes Anti-terrorism law Security force sweeps The plan To deal with Zawahiri, agents lured 13 yr old son of well-known Egypt fundamentalist Along with another child, forced to become spies Zawahiri Found deception Had boys brought to trial, as adults Found guilty and executed Execution videotaped and used as an intimidation tool Sudan ordered organization out of country immeadiately Zawahiri took refuge in Yemen

5 Al-Qaeda develops November 19, 1995 Meanwhile…
Zawahiri had Egyptian embassy in Pakistan bombed for 10th anniversary of al-Sadat’s trip to Jerusalem Prototype for future al-Qaeda attacks 1st success of Zawahiri’s administration Many of Zawahiri’s followers did not follow killing of innocents and had issue with suicide Zawahiri later connected suicide bombings with martyrdom Reversed the language of the prophet and opened the door to universal murder Meanwhile… Bin Laden depressed Isolated America pushing Sudan to force bin Laden out Even though Clinton Admin. still only viewed him as a wealthy nuisance U.S. okay with bin Laden going back to Afghanistan Has to apologize to go back to the Kingdom Lost most of fortune in Sudan Left Sudan May 18, 1996 Headed to Afghanistan

6 Chapter 13: Hijira Back in Afghanistan Three streams of Taliban
Taliban now in control of Afghanistan Dominated most provinces Taliban had not invited bin Laden to return Bin Laden under control of Mullah Mohammed Omar Mullah fought in Afghan-Soviet war Taught at madrassa, received a “vision” from the prophet Instructed to bring peace to country Led the Taliban Mullah became leader of religious movement Three streams of Taliban Money and Arms from Saudi Arabia and Pakistan Madrassas from across Pakistan border Opium from Afghanistan Drug lorders depended on Taliban for security Bin Laden’s life Went to Jalalabad Found quarters for family, went back to business in the honey trade Worried about Taliban After Taliban captured Kabul, extreme government took place Extreme Islam enforced Bin Laden’s “nadir” One of his important leaders in al- Qaeda dies, Abu Ubaydah He was poor Compared himself to the prophet when forced to make the hijira to Medina in 622 C.E. Key symbol of hijira was his cave in Tora Bora August 23, 1996 Bin Laden issued his “Declaration of War Against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places”

7 Khaled Sheik Mohammed Who he is In Afghanistan
Uncle of Ramzi Yousef, on the run Secretary for Sayyaf and Abdullah Azzam Had planned with Ramzi to blow up American jets in the Philippines in Operation Bojinka In Afghanistan Teams up with Osama bin Laden Discusses plans to attack America Seeds of 9/11 planted

8 Chapter 14: Going Operational
June 25, 1996 CIA/ FBI agents training at Quantico Attack on Khobar Towers in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia FBI sent in team Saudi’s make investigation difficult Cautious for legal reasons (Sharia law) FBI worked out agreement to interview suspects through mirrored glass Evidence pointed to Iranian-backed terrorists, Americans shut out O’Neill In charge of counterterrorism and counterintelligence in NY 1-49 squad responsible for the Middle East Mainly New Yorkers Had to solve TWA flight case before team could focus on bin Laden 1st time FBI and CIA worked together on project CIA part headed by Michael Scheuer Dan Coleman, FBI agent, assigned to CIA Had interviewed Jamal al-Fadl Wanted to stop bin Laden Finally get a break in Nairobi, Raid a safe house Find links to al-Qaeda

9 Chapter 15: Bread and Water
The delegation Mullah Omar sent a delegation to go and “check out” bin Laden in Tora Bora Taliban had no quarrel with the United States at this point Taliban did not want bin Laden attacking their sponsor, Saudi Arabia and wanted him to refrain from speaking to the press. In return bin Laden endorsed Taliban rule He immediately broke his promise and allowed for an interview with CNN Reporter Peter Bergen thought he was ill He seemed to have no legitimate political plan He wanted Americans to withdrawal from all Muslim lands Omar had to move bin Laden from Jalalabad to Kandahar Created excuse to move bin Laden Wanted to keep an eye on him Meanwhile….. Zawahiri had become a phantom Sought asylum in Bulgaria Traveled to Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan Possibly in several European nations Went to Chechnya, wanted to establish new base for al-Jihad December 1, 1996 crossed into Russia Detained by Russians for crossing illegally, didn’t know real identity Sent out the country With no income and fleeing support, Zawahiri had to join Osama in Afghanistan Regroup Many Egyptians regrouped in Afghanistan Many lived in bin Laden’s compound Family life very different Bin Laden a “different” person

10 Egypt July 1997 Zawahiri angered that a deal had been brokered in Egypt between the Islamist Group and the Egyptian government Called the nonviolence initiative Islamists divided October 1997 Islamic group wanted to attack Egypt and tourism November 17,1997 Group attacks Queen Hatsheput’s temple near Luxor The president’s wife was in attendance Targeted tourists Attackers committed suicide in a cave 58 tourists and 4 Egyptians died Egypt in shock Turning point in counterterrorist campaign in Egypt

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