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The Looming Tower Chapters 11-20. The Prince of Darkness- Chapter 11 John O’Neill ▫Appointed chief of FBI’s counter-terrorism section  Nicknamed the.

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Presentation on theme: "The Looming Tower Chapters 11-20. The Prince of Darkness- Chapter 11 John O’Neill ▫Appointed chief of FBI’s counter-terrorism section  Nicknamed the."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Looming Tower Chapters 11-20

2 The Prince of Darkness- Chapter 11 John O’Neill ▫Appointed chief of FBI’s counter-terrorism section  Nicknamed the Prince of Darkness ▫Was told by Dick Clarke that Ramzi Yousef was spotted in Islamabad ▫Got team ready for rendition  Legal kidnapping of suspects in a foreign land  Very urgent and complex  February 7 th, agents flew to Islamabad and captured Ramzi Yousef Dick Clarke and O’Neill formed tight partnership ▫Clarke the 1 st coordinator for counterterrorism on the National Security Council ▫Member of Counterterrorism Security Group  Their work led to agencies working more in a partnership and opening lines of communication  O’Neill worked hard to foster relationships with foreign dignitaries and public officials  O’Neill one of the 1 st to realize the scope of the Islamist terrorists

3 Bin Laden Argued his war was theological, Muslims v. Christians August 1995 ▫Broke with Saudi Arabia ▫Attacked King Fahd in a manifesto  Attacked lack of religion  US Troops in the Kingdom  Accused Royal Family of corruption ▫Saudi Arabia responds with crackdown on dissidents ▫Bin Laden responds with a car bomb at the Saudi National Guard center in Riyadh  Men were rounded up and beheaded  Bin Laden claimed as his 1 st terrorist blow

4 Chapter 12- The Boy Spies Planned assassination of Mubark ▫Egyptian President Hosni Mubark flew to Addis ababa June 26, 1996 ▫Egyptian radicals working with the Islamic group planned assassination ▫Mubarak attacked, two guards killed  Smart enough to drive back to airport, saved his life  Three assassins captured  Led to U.N. sanctions on Sudan In Egypt ▫Sweeping changes  Anti-terrorism law  Security force sweeps ▫The plan  To deal with Zawahiri, agents lured 13 yr old son of well-known Egypt fundamentalist  Along with another child, forced to become spies Zawahiri ▫Found deception ▫Had boys brought to trial, as adults ▫Found guilty and executed ▫Execution videotaped and used as an intimidation tool  Sudan ordered organization out of country immeadiately  Zawahiri took refuge in Yemen

5 Al-Qaeda develops November 19, 1995 ▫Zawahiri had Egyptian embassy in Pakistan bombed for 10 th anniversary of al-Sadat’s trip to Jerusalem ▫Prototype for future al-Qaeda attacks ▫1 st success of Zawahiri’s administration ▫Many of Zawahiri’s followers did not follow killing of innocents and had issue with suicide ▫Zawahiri later connected suicide bombings with martyrdom  Reversed the language of the prophet and opened the door to universal murder Meanwhile… ▫Bin Laden depressed  Isolated  America pushing Sudan to force bin Laden out  Even though Clinton Admin. still only viewed him as a wealthy nuisance  U.S. okay with bin Laden going back to Afghanistan  Has to apologize to go back to the Kingdom  Lost most of fortune in Sudan ▫Left Sudan May 18, 1996  Headed to Afghanistan

6 Chapter 13: Hijira Back in Afghanistan ▫Taliban now in control of Afghanistan  Dominated most provinces ▫Taliban had not invited bin Laden to return  Bin Laden under control of Mullah Mohammed Omar  Mullah fought in Afghan-Soviet war  Taught at madrassa, received a “vision” from the prophet ▫Instructed to bring peace to country ▫Led the Taliban ▫Mullah became leader of religious movement Three streams of Taliban ▫Money and Arms from Saudi Arabia and Pakistan ▫Madrassas from across Pakistan border ▫Opium from Afghanistan  Drug lorders depended on Taliban for security Bin Laden’s life ▫Went to Jalalabad ▫Found quarters for family, went back to business in the honey trade ▫Worried about Taliban After Taliban captured Kabul, extreme government took place ▫Extreme Islam enforced Bin Laden’s “nadir” ▫One of his important leaders in al- Qaeda dies, Abu Ubaydah ▫He was poor ▫Compared himself to the prophet when forced to make the hijira to Medina in 622 C.E.  Key symbol of hijira was his cave in Tora Bora August 23, 1996 ▫Bin Laden issued his “Declaration of War Against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holy Places”

7 Khaled Sheik Mohammed Who he is ▫Uncle of Ramzi Yousef, on the run ▫Secretary for Sayyaf and Abdullah Azzam ▫Had planned with Ramzi to blow up American jets in the Philippines in Operation Bojinka In Afghanistan ▫Teams up with Osama bin Laden ▫Discusses plans to attack America ▫Seeds of 9/11 planted

8 Chapter 14: Going Operational June 25, 1996 ▫CIA/ FBI agents training at Quantico ▫Attack on Khobar Towers in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia  FBI sent in team  Saudi’s make investigation difficult  Cautious for legal reasons (Sharia law)  FBI worked out agreement to interview suspects through mirrored glass  Evidence pointed to Iranian-backed terrorists, Americans shut out O’Neill ▫In charge of counterterrorism and counterintelligence in NY ▫1-49 squad responsible for the Middle East  Mainly New Yorkers  Had to solve TWA flight case before team could focus on bin Laden ▫1 st time FBI and CIA worked together on project  CIA part headed by Michael Scheuer  Dan Coleman, FBI agent, assigned to CIA  Had interviewed Jamal al-Fadl  Wanted to stop bin Laden  Finally get a break in Nairobi, ▫Raid a safe house ▫Find links to al-Qaeda

9 Chapter 15: Bread and Water The delegation ▫Mullah Omar sent a delegation to go and “check out” bin Laden in Tora Bora ▫Taliban had no quarrel with the United States at this point ▫Taliban did not want bin Laden attacking their sponsor, Saudi Arabia and wanted him to refrain from speaking to the press. ▫In return bin Laden endorsed Taliban rule  He immediately broke his promise and allowed for an interview with CNN  Reporter Peter Bergen thought he was ill  He seemed to have no legitimate political plan  He wanted Americans to withdrawal from all Muslim lands Omar had to move bin Laden from Jalalabad to Kandahar ▫Created excuse to move bin Laden ▫Wanted to keep an eye on him Meanwhile….. ▫Zawahiri had become a phantom  Sought asylum in Bulgaria  Traveled to Malaysia, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan  Possibly in several European nations  Went to Chechnya, wanted to establish new base for al-Jihad  December 1, 1996 crossed into Russia  Detained by Russians for crossing illegally, didn’t know real identity  Sent out the country  With no income and fleeing support, Zawahiri had to join Osama in Afghanistan ▫Regroup  Many Egyptians regrouped in Afghanistan  Many lived in bin Laden’s compound  Family life very different  Bin Laden a “different” person

10 Egypt July 1997 ▫Zawahiri angered that a deal had been brokered in Egypt between the Islamist Group and the Egyptian government  Called the nonviolence initiative  Islamists divided ▫October 1997  Islamic group wanted to attack Egypt and tourism  November 17,1997  Group attacks Queen Hatsheput’s temple near Luxor  The president’s wife was in attendance  Targeted tourists  Attackers committed suicide in a cave  58 tourists and 4 Egyptians died  Egypt in shock  Turning point in counterterrorist campaign in Egypt

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