Presentation on theme: "Revolution and Nationalism, 1900–1939 QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line Visual Summary SECTION Revolutions in Russia 1 SECTION Patterns of Change: Totalitarianism."— Presentation transcript:
Revolution and Nationalism, 1900–1939 QUIT Chapter Overview Time Line Visual Summary SECTION Revolutions in Russia 1 SECTION Patterns of Change: Totalitarianism 2 SECTION Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule 3 SECTION Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia 4 30 CHAPTER MAP GRAPH
HOME Chapter Overview Social unrest in Russia erupts in revolution. Under Stalin, the U.S.S.R. becomes a totalitarian state. After the Qing dynasty falls, Chinese Nationalists and Communists clash. World War I fuels nationalism in India and Southwest Asia. 30 CHAPTER Revolution and Nationalism, 1900–1939
1912 Chinese Nationalist oust the last Qing emperor. 1923 Turkey becomes a republic under Mustafa Kemal. 30 CHAPTER Time Line 19001939 HOME Revolution and Nationalism, 1900–1939 1905 Russian workers protest, asking for better conditions. 1920 Gandhi leads Indian campaign of civil disobedience. 1934 Mao Zedong heads Long March. 1935 India gains self-rule. 1929 Stalin exiles Trotsky from Soviet Union.
The Russian Revolutions of 1917 end czarist rule and usher in the first communist government. Lenin seizes power and launches major economic and political reforms. Overview Assessment Key Idea Revolutions in Russia 1 HOME
MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW Long-term social unrest in Russia erupted in revolution, ushering in the first Communist government. The Communist Party controlled the Soviet Union until the country’s breakup in 1991. Overview Revolutions in Russia 1 Assessment pogrom Trans-Siberian Railway Bolsheviks V. I. Lenin Duma Rasputin provisional government soviet TERMS & NAMES HOME
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List significant events during the last phases of czarist rule and the beginning of Communist rule. Revolutions in Russia 1 Section 1 Assessment continued... HOME 1891 1894 1917 1921 1922 Construction of the Trans- Siberian Railroad begins. Nicholas II becomes the last Russian czar. Russian Revolution ends czarist rule. Lenin launches New Economic Policy. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is formed.
2. What do you think were Czar Nicholas II’s worst errors in judgment during his rule? Why? THINK ABOUT Section Revolutions in Russia 1 1 Assessment the czar’s military decisions the political outcome of “Bloody Sunday” ANSWER continued... Involvement in the Russo-Japanese War, the czar’s refusal to share power with the Duma, Russia’s entry into World War I, and the czar’s change of headquarters to the war front all paved the way to revolution and the end of czarist rule. Possible Responses: HOME
Section Revolutions in Russia 1 1 Assessment ANSWER Lenin was able to win and maintain power because of his energetic, disciplined leadership; his awareness of the demands of various groups in Russian society; his careful planning; and his ability to tackle difficult problems and crises. Possible Responses: HOME 3. Why was Lenin’s leadership crucial to the success of the Russian Revolution? THINK ABOUT Lenin’s personal traits his slogan—“Peace, Land, and Bread” his role in organizing the Bolsheviks his role after the Revolution End of Section 1
After Lenin’s death, Stalin transforms the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. He revolutionizes the economy and uses terror, propaganda, and censorship to maintain power. Overview Assessment Key Idea Totalitarianism 2 HOME CASE STUDY: Stalinist Russia PATTERNS OF CHANGE MAP
Totalitarianism 2 HOME CASE STUDY: Stalinist Russia PATTERNS OF CHANGE After Lenin died, Stalin seized power and transformed the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. More recent dictators have used Stalin’s tactics for seizing total control over individuals and the state. Overview Assessment Joseph Stalin totalitarianism command economy collective farm kulak Great Purge socialist realism MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES MAP
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Cite examples from Stalinist Russia for each weapon of totalitarianism listed below. continued... Totalitarianism 2 HOME CASE STUDY: Stalinist Russia PATTERNS OF CHANGE WeaponsExamples Police Terror Propaganda Censorship Religious Persecution Great Purge, execution of kulaks Socialist realism, training of youth Government-controlled media Destruction of buildings, elimination of leadership MAP Section 2 Assessment
ANSWER Totalitarian: centralized under one leader, control all sectors of society and people’s lives, rely on force and propaganda Democratic: separation of powers, run by elected leaders, allow private ownership and freedom, maintain military for defense Possible Responses: 2. How do totalitarian states and constitutional governments differ? THINK ABOUT the chart explaining the key traits of totalitarianism what you have learned about constitutional government in the United States what you learned about the Soviet Constitution Totalitarianism 2 HOME CASE STUDY: Stalinist Russia PATTERNS OF CHANGE End of Section 2 MAP Section 2 Assessment
In 1912, Chinese nationalists overthrow the Qing dynasty and establish a new republic. Civil war erupts as Nationalists and Communists vie for control of China. Overview Assessment Key Idea Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule 3 HOME
After the fall of the Qing dynasty, nationalist and Communist movements struggled for power. The seeds of China’s late- 20th-century political thought, communism, were planted at this time. Overview Assessment Kuomintang Sun Yixian Mao Zedong May Fourth Movement Long March 3 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule
3 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare and contrast Jiang Jieshi and Mao Zedong. Section 3 Assessment continued... HOME Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule JiangMao Party Key Supporters Reforms Military Actions NationalistCommunist Bankers and business people Peasants Launched programs to modernize cities Divided land among local farmers Defeated warlordsEstablished Red Army
3 Section 3 Assessment ANSWER 2. What influence did foreign nations have on China from 1912 to 1938? THINK ABOUT the outcome of the Treaty of Versailles the role of the Soviet Union the temporary truce during the Chinese civil war continued... HOME Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule The Treaty of Versailles triggered the May Fourth Movement. Western democracies refused to support Sun’s government, but the Soviet Union did. Great Britain and United States recognized the Nationalist Republic of China. Japan’s invasion of China united Jiang’s and Mao’s forces. Possible Responses:
3 Section 3 Assessment ANSWER Failures of the Kuomintang Corruption in Jiang’s government Soviet Union’s involvement in Chinese affairs Poverty of peasants Mao’s strong leadership Possible Responses: 3. What caused the Communist revolutionary movement in China to gain strength? THINK ABOUT the Soviet Union’s influence the conditions of rural peasants End of Section 3 HOME Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule Jiang’s government and policies Mao’s role and achievements
World War I heightens nationalist activity and independence movements to overthrow colonial power. Gandhi uses nonviolent tactics to free India from British rule. Turkey, Persia, and Arabia also seek self-rule. Overview Assessment Key Idea Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia 4 HOME GRAPH
Nationalism triggered independence movements to overthrow colonial power. These independent nations—India, Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia— are key players on the world stage today. Overview Assessment Mohandas K. Gandhi civil disobedience Mustafa Kemal 4 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME GRAPH Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia
1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe the different forms of nationalism that developed in the Asian countries listed below. 4 continued... Section 4 Assessment HOME GRAPH Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia Forms of Nationalism 1900-1939 India Turkey Persia Saudi Arabia Nationalists use nonviolent methods to work for independence from British rule. Nationalists overthrow last Ottoman sultan. Kemal seeks Western- style modernization. Nationalists free Persia from British and Russian rule. Reza Shah changes country’s name to Iran. Ibn Saud unifies the nation and creates a state based on Islamic law.
Section 4 Assessment ANSWER 2. What do you think a nation might gain and lose by modernizing? THINK ABOUT what positive changes occurred in Turkey and Iran why Kemal set rules for clothing 4 why Gandhi wore only homespun cloth Gains—increased economic and political power; greater acceptance and respect from Western nations; equal rights for women Losses—a unique sense of cultural identity; traditional values and ways of life Possible Responses: HOME GRAPH Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia why modernization was limited in Saudi Arabia End of Section 4