Presentation on theme: "30 Revolution and Nationalism, 1900–1939 Revolutions in Russia"— Presentation transcript:
130 Revolution and Nationalism, 1900–1939 Revolutions in Russia QUIT30CHAPTERRevolution andNationalism, 1900–1939Chapter OverviewTime Line1Revolutions in RussiaSECTIONMAP2Patterns of Change: TotalitarianismSECTIONSECTION3Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule4Nationalism in India and Southwest AsiaGRAPHSECTIONVisual Summary
230 Revolution and Nationalism, 1900–1939 HOME30CHAPTERRevolution andNationalism, 1900–1939Chapter OverviewSocial unrest in Russia erupts in revolution. Under Stalin, the U.S.S.R. becomes a totalitarian state. After the Qing dynasty falls, Chinese Nationalists and Communists clash. World War I fuels nationalism in India and Southwest Asia.
330 Revolution and Nationalism, 1900–1939 HOME Time Line 1900 1939 CHAPTERRevolution andNationalism, 1900–1939Time Line1905 Russian workers protest, asking for better conditions.1920 Gandhi leads Indian campaign of civil disobedience.1929 Stalin exiles Trotsky from Soviet Union.1935 India gains self-rule.190019391912 Chinese Nationalist oust the last Qing emperor.1923 Turkey becomes a republic under Mustafa Kemal.1934 Mao Zedong heads Long March.
4Revolutions in Russia Key Idea 1 HOME1Revolutions in RussiaKey IdeaThe Russian Revolutions of 1917 end czarist rule and usher in the first communist government. Lenin seizes power and launches major economic and political reforms.OverviewAssessment
5Revolutions in Russia Overview 1 • pogrom • Trans-Siberian Railway HOME1Revolutions in RussiaTERMS & NAMESOverview• pogrom• Trans-Siberian Railway• Bolsheviks• V. I. Lenin• Duma• Rasputin• provisional government• sovietMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWLong-term social unrest in Russia erupted in revolution, ushering in the first Communist government.The Communist Party controlled the Soviet Union until the country’s breakup in 1991.Assessment
6HOME1Revolutions in RussiaSection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List significant events during the last phases of czarist rule and the beginning of Communist rule.18911894191719211922Construction of the Trans-Siberian Railroad begins.Russian Revolution ends czarist rule.Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is formed.Nicholas II becomes the last Russian czar.Lenin launches New Economic Policy.continued . . .
7HOME1Revolutions in RussiaSection1Assessment2. What do you think were Czar Nicholas II’s worst errors in judgment during his rule? Why? THINK ABOUT• the czar’s military decisions• the political outcome of “Bloody Sunday”ANSWERPossible Responses:Involvement in the Russo-Japanese War, the czar’s refusal to share power with the Duma, Russia’s entry into World War I, and the czar’s change of headquarters to the war front all paved the way to revolution and the end of czarist rule.continued . . .
8HOME1Revolutions in RussiaSection1Assessment3. Why was Lenin’s leadership crucial to the success of the Russian Revolution? THINK ABOUT• Lenin’s personal traits• his slogan—“Peace, Land, and Bread”• his role in organizing the Bolsheviks• his role after the RevolutionANSWERPossible Responses:Lenin was able to win and maintain power because of his energetic, disciplined leadership; his awareness of the demands of various groups in Russian society; his careful planning; and his ability to tackle difficult problems and crises.End of Section 1
9Totalitarianism Key Idea CASE STUDY: Stalinist Russia 2 HOME2TotalitarianismPATTERNSOF CHANGECASE STUDY: Stalinist RussiaMAPKey IdeaAfter Lenin’s death, Stalin transforms the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state. He revolutionizes the economy and uses terror, propaganda, and censorship to maintain power.OverviewAssessment
10Totalitarianism Overview CASE STUDY: Stalinist Russia 2 HOME2TotalitarianismPATTERNSOF CHANGECASE STUDY: Stalinist RussiaMAPTERMS & NAMESOverview• Joseph Stalin• totalitarianism• command economy• collective farm• kulak• Great Purge• socialist realismMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAfter Lenin died, Stalin seized power and transformed the Soviet Union into a totalitarian state.More recent dictators have used Stalin’s tactics for seizing total control over individuals and the state.Assessment
11Totalitarianism 2 CASE STUDY: Stalinist Russia 2 HOME2TotalitarianismPATTERNSOF CHANGECASE STUDY: Stalinist RussiaMAPSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Cite examples from Stalinist Russia for each weapon of totalitarianism listed below.WeaponsExamplesPolice TerrorPropagandaCensorshipReligious PersecutionGreat Purge, execution of kulaksSocialist realism, training of youthGovernment-controlled mediaDestruction of buildings, elimination of leadershipcontinued . . .
12Totalitarianism 2 CASE STUDY: Stalinist Russia 2 HOME2TotalitarianismPATTERNSOF CHANGECASE STUDY: Stalinist RussiaMAPSection2Assessment2. How do totalitarian states and constitutional governments differ? THINK ABOUT• the chart explaining the key traits of totalitarianism• what you have learned about constitutional government in the United States• what you learned about the Soviet ConstitutionANSWERPossible Responses:Totalitarian: centralized under one leader, control all sectors of society and people’s lives, rely on force and propagandaDemocratic: separation of powers, run by elected leaders, allow private ownership and freedom, maintain military for defenseEnd of Section 2
13Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule Key Idea 3 HOME3Collapse of ChineseImperial RuleKey IdeaIn 1912, Chinese nationalists overthrow the Qing dynasty and establish a new republic. Civil war erupts as Nationalists and Communists vie for control of China.OverviewAssessment
14Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule Overview 3 • Kuomintang • Sun Yixian HOME3Collapse of ChineseImperial RuleTERMS & NAMESOverview• Kuomintang• Sun Yixian• Mao Zedong• May Fourth Movement• Long MarchMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAfter the fall of the Qing dynasty, nationalist and Communist movements struggled for power.The seeds of China’s late-20th-century political thought, communism, were planted at this time.Assessment
15Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule 3 3 HOME3Collapse of ChineseImperial RuleSection3Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare and contrast Jiang Jieshi and Mao Zedong.JiangMaoPartyKey SupportersReformsMilitary ActionsNationalistCommunistBankers and business peoplePeasantsLaunched programs to modernize citiesDivided land among local farmersDefeated warlordsEstablished Red Armycontinued . . .
16Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule 3 3 HOME3Collapse of ChineseImperial RuleSection3Assessment2. What influence did foreign nations have on China from 1912 to 1938? THINK ABOUT• the outcome of the Treaty of Versailles• the role of the Soviet Union• the temporary truce during the Chinese civil warANSWERPossible Responses:• The Treaty of Versailles triggered the May Fourth Movement.• Western democracies refused to support Sun’s government, but the Soviet Union did.• Great Britain and United States recognized the Nationalist Republic of China.• Japan’s invasion of China united Jiang’s and Mao’s forces.continued . . .
17Collapse of Chinese Imperial Rule 3 3 HOME3Collapse of ChineseImperial RuleSection3Assessment3. What caused the Communist revolutionary movement in China to gain strength? THINK ABOUT• Jiang’s government and policies• the Soviet Union’s influence• the conditions of rural peasants• Mao’s role and achievementsANSWERPossible Responses:• Failures of the Kuomintang• Corruption in Jiang’s government• Soviet Union’s involvement in Chinese affairs• Poverty of peasants• Mao’s strong leadershipEnd of Section 3
18Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia Key Idea 4 HOME4Nationalism in Indiaand Southwest AsiaGRAPHKey IdeaWorld War I heightens nationalist activity and independence movements to overthrow colonial power. Gandhi uses nonviolent tactics to free India from British rule. Turkey, Persia, and Arabia also seek self-rule.OverviewAssessment
19Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia Overview 4 HOME4Nationalism in Indiaand Southwest AsiaGRAPHTERMS & NAMESOverview• Mohandas K. Gandhi• civil disobedience• Mustafa KemalMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWNationalism triggered independence movements to overthrow colonial power.These independent nations—India, Turkey, Iran, and Saudi Arabia—are key players on the world stage today.Assessment
20Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia 4 4 HOME4Nationalism in Indiaand Southwest AsiaGRAPHSection4Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Describe the different forms of nationalism that developed in the Asian countries listed below.Forms of NationalismIndiaTurkeyPersiaSaudi ArabiaNationalists use nonviolent methods to work for independence from British rule.Nationalists free Persia from British and Russian rule.Reza Shah changes country’s name to Iran.Nationalists overthrow last Ottoman sultan.Ibn Saud unifies the nation and creates a state based on Islamic law.Kemal seeks Western-style modernization.continued . . .
21Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia 4 4 HOME4Nationalism in Indiaand Southwest AsiaGRAPHSection4Assessment2. What do you think a nation might gain and lose by modernizing? THINK ABOUT• what positive changes occurred in Turkey and Iran• why modernization was limited in Saudi Arabia• why Kemal set rules for clothing• why Gandhi wore only homespun clothANSWERPossible Responses:Gains—increased economic and political power; greater acceptance and respect from Western nations; equal rights for womenLosses—a unique sense of cultural identity; traditional values and ways of lifeEnd of Section 4