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Revolution and Nationalism

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Presentation on theme: "Revolution and Nationalism"— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolution and Nationalism
Chapter 14

2 Revolutions in Russia Chapter 14 Section 1

3 Czars Resist Change Czar Alexander III and absolute authority
Czars Continue Autocratic Rule Censorship and secret police Oppression of racial and religious minorities specifically who? (pogroms?) Czar Nicholas II succeeds AIII and continues the autocratic rule

4 Russia Industrializes
Russia rapidly industrializes through growth in the _________ industry and the development of railroads The Revolutionary Movement Grows Russian citizens’ response to industrialization? (Does this sound familiar?) Marxist ideas of an overthrow by the proletariat became popular Mensheviks vs. Bolsheviks How is Lenin able to gain control of the Bolsheviks? What happens to him?

5 Crises at Home and Abroad
3 major events that paved the way for revolution in Russia: The Russo Japanese War February 1904 Russia breaks treaties with the Japanese, losses to the Japanese increase unrest Bloody Sunday: The Revolution of 1905 January 1905 Russians petition the _______ at his winter palace in ____________ for what? As a result, the Duma is created…and dissolved after 10 weeks WWI: The Final Blow WWI exposes Russia’s weaknesses Rasputin (in exchange for “healing” the czar’s son is able to make key political decisions in the czar’s absence Desertion, food, fuel all became issues

6 Portrait of the 8 year old Alexei

7 The March Revolution 200,000 workers strike in Petrograd, soldiers shot down rioters then? The Czar Steps Down In 1917 Nicholas II abdicates and a year later his entire family is _________ The Duma establishes what in place of the czar? Soviets are formed locally in an attempt to gain power and make reforms

8 The Bolshevik Revolution
Lenin’s “Peace, Land, and Bread” slogan sweeps through Russia’s major soviets The Provisional Government Topples Lenin and the Bolshevik Red Army arrest the provisional government and take over gov’t offices Bolsheviks in Power Distribution of farmland, control of factories, Treaty of Brest- Litovsk Russia citizens’ response? Civil War Rages in Russia What kinds of groups made up the White Army? Purpose? 14 million Russians die, Red Army crushes the opposition More like the French or American Revolution?

9 Lenin Restores Order What did war and revolution do to the Russia economy? New Economic Policy The NEP under Lenin allows for _________ control of major industry and __________ ownership of small businesses In just 7 years Lenin has Russia back to pre-war production Political Reforms In response to nationalism, Lenin organizes Russia into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Bolsheviks become the Communist Party with Lenin as dictator (of the party and not the people, so he said)


11 Stalin Becomes Dictator
After Lenin’s stroke in 1922, Leon Trotsky (leader of the Red Army) and Joseph Stalin compete for leadership of the Communist Party Stalin worked hard to get his people into position of power within the Communist Party Gained total power by 1928, Trotsky forced into exile in 1929

12 14.1 Daily Questions What was gained by the Russian czar’s censorship and strict policies? Why did entering WWI prove devastating for Czar Nicholas? Honors Only How did Lenin’s Communist Party stray from Marx’s original concept of communism?

13 Totalitarianism Case Study: Stalinist Russia
Chapter 14 Section 2

14 A Gov’t of Total Control
Totalitarianism-a gov’t that takes total, centralized, state control over every aspect of public and private life (mass communication) Challenge to Western ideals like what? Terror, indoctrination, propaganda, censorship, persecution Police Terror Terror and violence Police exist to enforce the ________’s policies as opposed to what? Use of spies, intimidation, brutal force

15 A Gov’t of Total Control
Indoctrination Instruction in the gov’t’s beliefs (control of education/youth) Propaganda and Censorship Biased or incomplete information Control of mass media What happened if you went against gov’t provided information? Religious or Ethnic Persecution Take the blame, become enemies of the state Terror/violence Rules and living situations

16 Stalin Builds a Totalitarian State
Police State Citizens become vigilantes Arrest and execution of millions of Russians Great Purge-campaign directed at eliminating anyone who threatened his power What happened to Bolsheviks under Stalin? Russian Propaganda and Censorship Against creativity, must conform to state views How did the media portray Stalin? Use of propaganda to influence behavior

17 Stalin Builds a Totalitarian State
Education and Indoctrination Nursery schools university What happened to those who questionsed the CP? Sacrifice and hard work Religious Persecution Atheists spread anti-religious propaganda What happened to churches and religious leaders? Could a perfect communist state truly be created?

18 Stalin Seizes Control of the Economy
Creation of a command economy where the ______ made all of the economic decisions An Industrial Revolution Five-Year Plans-quotas and goals for output…how would this effect the production of consumer goods? Overall results? An Agricultural Revolution Collective farms created by combining privately owned farms in the USSR, purpose? How did peasants attempt to sabotage gov’t efforts?

19 Daily Life Under Stalin
How did the lives of Soviet citizens change under Stalin? Women Gain Rights After the Revolution women were seen as equal in the USSR Forced to join the labor force Chosen professions? Expectations at home?

20 Total Control Achieved
How long does it take Stalin to transform society? Rule by terror instead of a constitutional government

21 14.2 Daily Questions Why did Stalin limit the production of consumer goods? What was so revolutionary about education under Stalin? Honors Only 3. What is ironic about Stalin putting the Bolsheviks on trial for crimes against the state?

22 Imperial China Collapses
Chapter 14 Section 3

23 Nationalists Overthrow Qing Dynasty
Why was China considered “ripe for revolution” in the 1900s? (Hint: modern vs. traditional) Kuimintang push for modernization, led by Sun Yixian they _________ the Qing dynasty Shaky Start for the New Republic 3 goals: An end to foreign control Democracy Economic security Military rule takes hold of China, betraying the democratic ideals that started it

24 Nationalists Overthrow Qing Dynasty
WWI Spells More Problems China enters the war on the side of the __________ hoping for what? The May Fourth Movement across China shows devotion to change and strong opposition the Treaty of Versailles Democracy vs. communism Why would Chinese citizens abandon democracy in favor of Lenin’s brand of Communism?

25 The Communist Party in China
What was the difference between Marx and Mao’s vision of a communist revolution? Lenin Befriends China Nationalists and Communists in China unite (for a short time), why? Lenin sends ________ and ________ to aid the revolutionary cause Peasants Align with the Communists The new leader of the Nationalists Jiang Jieshi is weary of the Communists, why? When the peasants did not feel as if Jiang and the nationalists were helping them, they began supporting the ______ Nationalists and Communists Clash After uniting to defeat the warlords in China, Jiang turns against the Communists Jiang established the Nationalist Republic of China, recognized by who (and more notably not who?)

26 Civil War Rages in China
Nationalists and Communists engage in civil war, Mao recruits the _______ for his Red Army The Long March Jiang’s army forces 100,000 communist troops on what would be called the Long March Mao and the rest of the survivors settle in northern China Civil War Suspended Civil war rages, Japan takes advantage and by 1938 hold a large portion of China The Nationalists and the Communists sign an “uneasy truce” to defeat the Japanese

27 14.3 Daily Questions Why did Mao believe that peasants would make true revolutionaries? Did Jiang and Mao eventually solve their differences? Why or why not? Honors Only 3. What were the weaknesses of the new republic in China?

28 Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia
Chapter 14 Section 4

29 Indian Nationalism Grows
Congress Party (Hindus) and the Muslim League work together for Indian independence, why? WWI Increases Nationalist Activity Indians fight for Britain during WWI in exchange for what? Was this promise fulfilled? Rowlatt Acts allowed the English gov’t to _________ protestors for up to ______ years Amritsar Massacre An alliance of Hindus and Muslims in reaction to the Acts worries the British Amritsar Massacre changes loyal subjects to nationalists

30 Gandhi's Tactics of Nonviolence
Gandhi’s approach to political activity? Noncooperation Gandhi supports civil disobedience (refusal and nonviolence) as a reaction to the Amritsar Massacre Attempts to weaken the political and _______ control over India Boycotts Refusal to buy goods, attend schools, pay taxes, vote in elections Gandhi successfully leads a boycott of British __________

31 Gandhi's Tactics of Nonviolence
Strikes and Demonstrations Civil disobedience significantly effects the British economically Was Gandhi able to eliminate all violence? The Salt March Purpose for walking 240 miles to the ocean? The march against salt processing results in the brutal beating of demonstrators gains international support for Gandhi

32 Britain Grants Limited Self-Rule
By 1935 India is allowed to self-govern with limited democratic elections Not full independence until 1947 Muslims vs. Hindus in the fight for control of India

33 Nationalism in SW Asia Turkey Becomes a Republic Persia Becomes Iran
Break up of the Ottoman Empire after WWI Mustafa Kemal defends the Turks against Greek conquest and the ___________ overthrow the sultan 1923 Turkey becomes a republic, Kemal’s reforms? Persia Becomes Iran British try and take over Persia after WWI, nationalists revolt under Reza Shah Pahlavi Pahlavi modernizes, keeps the power, and renames the country Iran in 1935

34 Nationalism in SW Asia Saudi Arabia Keeps Islamic Traditions
Saudi Arabia is united in 1932 under the Saud family Arab and Islamic traditions are kept Religious traditions, no democracy Oil Drives Development 1920s and 1930s Europeans and Americans become interested in _______ deposits in SW Asia 2/3rds of the world’s oil supply was found near the Persian Gulf Economic changes and development because of the potential for huge profits



37 14.4 Daily Questions Why was civil disobedience a popular solution for Indians? In what ways was civil disobedience a more successful method than violence? Honors Only The Amritsar Massacre is similar to what event in Russian history that also sparked a revolution?

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