3 Czars Resist Change Czar Alexander III and absolute authority Czars Continue Autocratic RuleCensorship and secret policeOppression of racial and religious minorities specifically who? (pogroms?)Czar Nicholas II succeeds AIII and continues the autocratic rule
4 Russia Industrializes Russia rapidly industrializes through growth in the _________ industry and the development of railroadsThe Revolutionary Movement GrowsRussian citizens’ response to industrialization? (Does this sound familiar?)Marxist ideas of an overthrow by the proletariat became popularMensheviks vs. BolsheviksHow is Lenin able to gain control of the Bolsheviks? What happens to him?
5 Crises at Home and Abroad 3 major events that paved the way for revolution in Russia:The Russo Japanese WarFebruary 1904 Russia breaks treaties with the Japanese, losses to the Japanese increase unrestBloody Sunday: The Revolution of 1905January 1905 Russians petition the _______ at his winter palace in ____________ for what?As a result, the Duma is created…and dissolved after 10 weeksWWI: The Final BlowWWI exposes Russia’s weaknessesRasputin (in exchange for “healing” the czar’s son is able to make key political decisions in the czar’s absenceDesertion, food, fuel all became issues
7 The March Revolution200,000 workers strike in Petrograd, soldiers shot down rioters then?The Czar Steps DownIn 1917 Nicholas II abdicates and a year later his entire family is _________The Duma establishes what in place of the czar?Soviets are formed locally in an attempt to gain power and make reforms
8 The Bolshevik Revolution Lenin’s “Peace, Land, and Bread” slogan sweeps through Russia’s major sovietsThe Provisional Government TopplesLenin and the Bolshevik Red Army arrest the provisional government and take over gov’t officesBolsheviks in PowerDistribution of farmland, control of factories, Treaty of Brest- LitovskRussia citizens’ response?Civil War Rages in RussiaWhat kinds of groups made up the White Army? Purpose?14 million Russians die, Red Army crushes the oppositionMore like the French or American Revolution?
9 Lenin Restores OrderWhat did war and revolution do to the Russia economy?New Economic PolicyThe NEP under Lenin allows for _________ control of major industry and __________ ownership of small businessesIn just 7 years Lenin has Russia back to pre-war productionPolitical ReformsIn response to nationalism, Lenin organizes Russia into the Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsBolsheviks become the Communist Party with Lenin as dictator (of the party and not the people, so he said)
11 Stalin Becomes Dictator After Lenin’s stroke in 1922, Leon Trotsky (leader of the Red Army) and Joseph Stalin compete for leadership of the Communist PartyStalin worked hard to get his people into position of power within the Communist PartyGained total power by 1928, Trotsky forced into exile in 1929
12 14.1 Daily QuestionsWhat was gained by the Russian czar’s censorship and strict policies?Why did entering WWI prove devastating for Czar Nicholas?Honors OnlyHow did Lenin’s Communist Party stray from Marx’s original concept of communism?
13 Totalitarianism Case Study: Stalinist Russia Chapter 14 Section 2
14 A Gov’t of Total Control Totalitarianism-a gov’t that takes total, centralized, state control over every aspect of public and private life (mass communication)Challenge to Western ideals like what?Terror, indoctrination, propaganda, censorship, persecutionPolice TerrorTerror and violencePolice exist to enforce the ________’s policies as opposed to what?Use of spies, intimidation, brutal force
15 A Gov’t of Total Control IndoctrinationInstruction in the gov’t’s beliefs (control of education/youth)Propaganda and CensorshipBiased or incomplete informationControl of mass mediaWhat happened if you went against gov’t provided information?Religious or Ethnic PersecutionTake the blame, become enemies of the stateTerror/violenceRules and living situations
16 Stalin Builds a Totalitarian State Police StateCitizens become vigilantesArrest and execution of millions of RussiansGreat Purge-campaign directed at eliminating anyone who threatened his powerWhat happened to Bolsheviks under Stalin?Russian Propaganda and CensorshipAgainst creativity, must conform to state viewsHow did the media portray Stalin?Use of propaganda to influence behavior
17 Stalin Builds a Totalitarian State Education and IndoctrinationNursery schools universityWhat happened to those who questionsed the CP?Sacrifice and hard workReligious PersecutionAtheists spread anti-religious propagandaWhat happened to churches and religious leaders?Could a perfect communist state truly be created?
18 Stalin Seizes Control of the Economy Creation of a command economy where the ______ made all of the economic decisionsAn Industrial RevolutionFive-Year Plans-quotas and goals for output…how would this effect the production of consumer goods? Overall results?An Agricultural RevolutionCollective farms created by combining privately owned farms in the USSR, purpose?How did peasants attempt to sabotage gov’t efforts?
19 Daily Life Under Stalin How did the lives of Soviet citizens change under Stalin?Women Gain RightsAfter the Revolution women were seen as equal in the USSRForced to join the labor forceChosen professions?Expectations at home?
20 Total Control Achieved How long does it take Stalin to transform society?Rule by terror instead of a constitutional government
21 14.2 Daily QuestionsWhy did Stalin limit the production of consumer goods?What was so revolutionary about education under Stalin?Honors Only3. What is ironic about Stalin putting the Bolsheviks on trial for crimes against the state?
23 Nationalists Overthrow Qing Dynasty Why was China considered “ripe for revolution” in the 1900s? (Hint: modern vs. traditional)Kuimintang push for modernization, led by Sun Yixian they _________ the Qing dynastyShaky Start for the New Republic3 goals:An end to foreign controlDemocracyEconomic securityMilitary rule takes hold of China, betraying the democratic ideals that started it
24 Nationalists Overthrow Qing Dynasty WWI Spells More ProblemsChina enters the war on the side of the __________ hoping for what?The May Fourth Movement across China shows devotion to change and strong opposition the Treaty of VersaillesDemocracy vs. communismWhy would Chinese citizens abandon democracy in favor of Lenin’s brand of Communism?
25 The Communist Party in China What was the difference between Marx and Mao’s vision of a communist revolution?Lenin Befriends ChinaNationalists and Communists in China unite (for a short time), why?Lenin sends ________ and ________ to aid the revolutionary causePeasants Align with the CommunistsThe new leader of the Nationalists Jiang Jieshi is weary of the Communists, why?When the peasants did not feel as if Jiang and the nationalists were helping them, they began supporting the ______Nationalists and Communists ClashAfter uniting to defeat the warlords in China, Jiang turns against the CommunistsJiang established the Nationalist Republic of China, recognized by who (and more notably not who?)
26 Civil War Rages in China Nationalists and Communists engage in civil war, Mao recruits the _______ for his Red ArmyThe Long MarchJiang’s army forces 100,000 communist troops on what would be called the Long MarchMao and the rest of the survivors settle in northern ChinaCivil War SuspendedCivil war rages, Japan takes advantage and by 1938 hold a large portion of ChinaThe Nationalists and the Communists sign an “uneasy truce” to defeat the Japanese
27 14.3 Daily QuestionsWhy did Mao believe that peasants would make true revolutionaries?Did Jiang and Mao eventually solve their differences? Why or why not?Honors Only3. What were the weaknesses of the new republic in China?
28 Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia Chapter 14 Section 4
29 Indian Nationalism Grows Congress Party (Hindus) and the Muslim League work together for Indian independence, why?WWI Increases Nationalist ActivityIndians fight for Britain during WWI in exchange for what? Was this promise fulfilled?Rowlatt Acts allowed the English gov’t to _________ protestors for up to ______ yearsAmritsar MassacreAn alliance of Hindus and Muslims in reaction to the Acts worries the BritishAmritsar Massacre changes loyal subjects to nationalists
30 Gandhi's Tactics of Nonviolence Gandhi’s approach to political activity?NoncooperationGandhi supports civil disobedience (refusal and nonviolence) as a reaction to the Amritsar MassacreAttempts to weaken the political and _______ control over IndiaBoycottsRefusal to buy goods, attend schools, pay taxes, vote in electionsGandhi successfully leads a boycott of British __________
31 Gandhi's Tactics of Nonviolence Strikes and DemonstrationsCivil disobedience significantly effects the British economicallyWas Gandhi able to eliminate all violence?The Salt MarchPurpose for walking 240 miles to the ocean?The march against salt processing results in the brutal beating of demonstratorsgains international support for Gandhi
32 Britain Grants Limited Self-Rule By 1935 India is allowed to self-govern with limited democratic electionsNot full independence until 1947Muslims vs. Hindus in the fight for control of India
33 Nationalism in SW Asia Turkey Becomes a Republic Persia Becomes Iran Break up of the Ottoman Empire after WWIMustafa Kemal defends the Turks against Greek conquest and the ___________ overthrow the sultan1923 Turkey becomes a republic, Kemal’s reforms?Persia Becomes IranBritish try and take over Persia after WWI, nationalists revolt under Reza Shah PahlaviPahlavi modernizes, keeps the power, and renames the country Iran in 1935
34 Nationalism in SW Asia Saudi Arabia Keeps Islamic Traditions Saudi Arabia is united in 1932 under the Saud familyArab and Islamic traditions are keptReligious traditions, no democracyOil Drives Development1920s and 1930s Europeans and Americans become interested in _______ deposits in SW Asia2/3rds of the world’s oil supply was found near the Persian GulfEconomic changes and development because of the potential for huge profits
37 14.4 Daily QuestionsWhy was civil disobedience a popular solution for Indians?In what ways was civil disobedience a more successful method than violence?Honors OnlyThe Amritsar Massacre is similar to what event in Russian history that also sparked a revolution?