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The Dynamic Earth Chapter 3.

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Presentation on theme: "The Dynamic Earth Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Dynamic Earth Chapter 3

2 Layers of the Earth Hydrosphere Atmosphere Geosphere

3 The Geosphere Chapter 1, Section 1

4 The Composition of Earth
The upper and lower crust, the mantle, and the core Core – Earth’s innermost compositional layer

5 Earthquake An earthquake is the vibrations of the Earth’s crust caused by slippage along a fault The energy released by an earthquake occurs in the form of seismic waves

6 Volcanoes A mountain built from magma – melted rock – that rises from the Earth’s interior to the surface Most are located around the Pacific Rim

7 Which of the following does NOT both remove and add gases to the atmosphere?
Plants Animals Automobiles Volcanic Eruptions

8 Wind and Water Erosion Likely to effect: mountains, beaches, soil, soft rocks Not Likely to effect: tides

9 The Atmosphere Chapter 1, Section 2

10 Layers of Atmosphere Troposphere – Nearest Earth’s surface
The densest atmospheric layer Where all of Earth’s weather occurs Stratosphere – O-Zone layer Mesosphere – Coldest layer of atmosphere Thermosphere – Where nitrogen and oxygen absorb solar radiation The topmost layer Ionosphere – the lower Thermosphere


12 Greenhouse Gasses GREENHOUSE gases in the atmosphere, including WATER VAPOR, trap radiated heat and help maintain surface air temperature

13 Surface Currents Surface currents in the ocean can influence CLIMATES OF land areas they flow past because they CARRY WARMER OR COLDER WATER GREAT DISTANCES

14 Mechanisms of Energy Transfer
Radiation – The transfer of energy across space Conduction – The flow of heat from a warmer object to a colder object when the objects are placed in direct physical contact Convection – The transfer of heat by air currents

15 The Hydrosphere and Biosphere
Chapter 3, Section 3

16 Hydrosphere Includes all of the water on or near Earth’s surface
What about the water below Earth’s surface? There are two types of water: salt water and fresh water, in which salt water obviously contains more salt

17 The Water Cycle The continuous movement of water into the air, onto land, and then back to water Evaporation – the process in which liquid water is heated by the sun and then rises into the atmosphere as water vapor Condensation – water vapor that forms droplets on dust particles Precipitation – rain, snow, sleet, or hail that falls from clouds


19 Aerosols Aerosols are tiny, liquid droplets found in the atmosphere

20 World Ocean A single, large, interconnected body of water that covers 70% of Earth’s surface

21 Ocean Layers Surface Zone, Thermocline, and Deep Zone
The DEEP ZONE of ocean is from base of thermocline to the bottom of the ocean


23 What drives the ocean surface currents?
Tectonic plates Gravity Salinity Wind

24 Deepest Ocean The four main oceans are the Arctic, Indian, Atlantic, and the Pacific The deepest ocean is the Pacific Called the Challenger Deep 11,033 m below sea level

25 Thermocline Boundary between warm and cold water in ocean or lake

26 Where is most of the World’s fresh water?
Only ~3% of the world’s water is fresh water Most of the world’s fresh water is found in the ice caps and glaciers

27 Tributaries Tributaries are smaller streams or rivers that flow into larger ones

28 Recharge Zone Land surface area where water enters an aquifer

29 Pack Ice Forms when frozen seawater is driven together by wind and waves

30 Picture References Listed in order that they appear rth volcano-blow-up-to-cover-an-entire-continent-with-ash fig5-1.htm 14

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