Presentation on theme: "By George Orwell “All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others.” Allegory - Satire - Fable."— Presentation transcript:
By George Orwell “All animals are equal, but some are more equal than others.” Allegory - Satire - Fable
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-Eric Arthur Blair (1903-1950) -Pseudonym: George Orwell -Was a teacher for a short period of time while he was still just trying to make a life as a writer. -Best known for 1984 and Animal Farm
Animal Farm (1945) is a novella (shorter novel), where George Orwell illuminates the strengths and weaknesses of Communism. Moreover, Orwell uses fictitious characters to represent important people or groups of people that played an integral role during the period of time known as the Russian Revolution (1917). http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=914de810-1871-429b-80b1- 64f1b9ed72b4&productcode=US&CFID=1924224&CFTOKEN=39367918
In explaining how he came to write Animal Farm, Orwell says he once saw a little boy whipping a horse and later he wrote, “It struck me that if only such animals became aware of their strength we should have no power over them, and that men exploit animals in much the same way as the rich exploit the [worker].”
1917 During World War I Russia has been at a lengthy and expensive war with Germany The people are deeply displeased with Nicholas II, the current, ruling czar Working class is overworked and underfed “The Whites” (formal officials, nobles, military leaders, etc.) are still living in luxury
“Soviets” (small political organizations) began to form amongst the people These soviets tried to use the strength of their numbers to bring upon change to better the lives of the working class Eventually, the people, HUNGRY AND EXHAUSTED overthrew the czar and small, “provincial” governments were formed to rule small areas within the country (early 1917) Later, however, the Bolsheviks, a new political party, usurped the power and set forth their Communist ideals
The Bolsheviks took over power during the infamous “October Revolution” (1917) The Bolsheviks followed and taught the tenets of Communism. Communism was supposed to get rid of rich and poor by equally dividing the work load, as well as the wealth in hopes that everyone might prosper. Everyone is supposed to have an equal say in all parts of a Communist society.
(1870-1924) Noted as founding the Bolsheviks Led the October Revolution Read Karl Marx, a German philosopher, noted as the “father of modern-day” Communism From the ideas he received from Marx’s writings, he formed the Bolsheviks, who brought Communism to Russia
After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the first official socialist state was created with Lenin at the helm. The Bolsheviks changed their name to the Russian Communist Party after the Revolution. They later became known as “The Reds.” Lenin became so well-loved and revered that upon his death his body was placed on display for all to see and admire. After his death in 1924, a power struggle emerged for control of the Communist Party.
Trotsky believed that the only way a society could survive was through permanent revolution. He reinforced the need for a worldwide socialist class. This idea was later known as Trotskyism. Stalin (secretary general of the Communist party) favored a modified form of Marxism. He argued that a socialist state could and must first be created within Russia and that Russia would be the leader for the international proletariat.
Later, however, Stalin’s ideas and practices quickly turned totalitarian. The power-hungry Stalin would not let anything stand in his way. Totalitarianism is a form of government with a strong central rule that attempts to control individuals by means of coercion and repression. Stalin eventually won the power struggle and had Trotsky exiled to Mexico where he is later killed by USSR agents.
Stalin began several 5-year plans to stimulate the Russian economy, which actually decreased under his collective farming. Although he took the formal title of Premier in 1941, Stalin was an absolute dictator. Any opposition to Stalin was subject to secret arrests, fake trials, forced labor camps, and mass executions.
Estimates put the death rate in the neighborhood of 10- 20,000,000. Stalin guided Russia through WWII as an ally of the United States. This friendship perhaps explains why numerous details about Stalin’s regime were not made public. He took Russia from an agricultural to an industrial society. His death in 1953 brought about a series of other Premiers who continued with the same oppression of the people, although some changes slowly ensued.
The story starts with a character, who is the symbolic embodiment of Vladimir Lenin, making one last speech before he passes away. In this speech, he outlines the way that Communism (Animalism) is supposed to be governed and maintained. The novella, Animal Farm, then goes on to allegorically chronicle the rise and fall of Communism in Russia, focusing in on how Josef Stalin, Leon Trotsky, the rich and the poor all played their parts in the years immediately following the Russian Revolution.
After Animal Farm was published in 1945, George Orwell discovered with horror that booksellers were placing his novel on children’s shelves. According to his housekeeper, he began traveling from bookstore to bookstore requesting that the book be shelved with adult works. This dual identity — as children’s story and adult satire — has stayed with Orwell’s novel for more than fifty years.
The most popular animal fables of the 20th Century are the Just So Stories (1902) written by Rudyard Kipling. Kipling's fables were adapted by Disney in the movie The Jungle Book. Orwell admired Kipling and the Just So Stories would seem to have influenced the form of Animal Farm. Orwell took the short animal fable and expanded it to the length of a short novel in the form of an allegory.
Most fables have two levels of meaning. On the surface, the fable is about animals. But on a second level, the animals stand for types of people or ideas. The way the animals interact and the way the plot unfolds says something about the nature of people or the value of ideas. Any type of fiction that has multiple levels of meaning in this way is called an allegory.
Animal Farm is strongly allegorical, but it presents a very nice balance between levels of meaning. On the first level, the story about the animals is very moving. You can be upset when Boxer is taken away by the horse slaughterer without being too aware of what he stands for. But at the same time, each of the animals does serve as a symbol. The story's second level involves the careful critique Orwell constructed to comment on Soviet Russia. Boxer
Animal Farm Revolution Was supposed to make life better for all, but... Can animals run a farm by themselves? Is the idea of Animals running the farm plausible? Russian Revolution Was supposed to fix the problems created by the Czar, but... Life was even worse after the revolution. Stalin made the Czar look like a nice guy.
Old Major An old boar whose speech about the evils perpetrated by humans rouses the animals into rebelling. His philosophy concerning the tyranny of Man is named Animalism. He teaches the animals the song “Beasts of England” Dies before revolution Karl Marx The inventor of communism Wants to unite the working class to overthrow the government. Dies before the Russian Revolution
Napoleon Boar who leads the rebellion against Farmer Jones After the rebellion’s success, he systematically begins to control all aspects of the farm until he is an undisputed tyrant. Joseph Stalin The communist dictator of the Soviet Union from 1922-1953 who killed all who opposed him. He loved power and used the KGB (secret police) to enforce his ruthless, corrupt antics.
Farmer Jones The irresponsible owner of the farm Lets his animals starve and beats them with a whip Sometimes shows random kindness Czar Nicholas II Weak Russian leader during the early 1900s Often cruel and brutal to his subjects Displays isolated kindness
Snowball Boar who becomes one of the rebellion’s most valuable leaders. After drawing complicated plans for the construction of a windmill, he is chased off of the farm forever by Napoleon’s dogs and thereafter used as a scapegoat for the animals’ troubles. Leon Trotsky A pure communist leader who was influenced by the teachings of Karl Marx. He wanted to improve life for people in Russia, but was driven away by Lenin’s KGB.
Squealer A big mouth pig who becomes Napoleon’s mouthpiece. Throughout the novel, he displays his ability to manipulate the animals’ thoughts through the use of hollow, yet convincing rhetoric. Represents the propaganda department that worked to support Stalin’s image; the members of the department would use lies to convince the people to follow Stalin. Boxer A dedicated but dimwitted horse who aids in the building of the windmill but is sold to a glue-boiler after collapsing from exhaustion. Represents the dedicated, but tricked communist supporters of Stalin. Many stayed loyal even after it was obvious Stalin was a tyrant. Eventually they were betrayed, ignored, and even killed by him. Boxer Squealer
Jessie The farm's sheepdog, she keeps tabs on the pigs and is among the first to suspect that something is wrong at Animal Farm. Moses A tame raven and sometimes-pet of Jones who tells the animals stories about a paradise called Sugarcandy Mountain. Moses represents religion. Stalin used religious principles to influence people to work and to avoid revolt. Jessie Moses
Animalism Taught my Old Major No rich, but no poor Better life for workers All animals are equal Everyone owns the farm Communism Invented by Karl Marx All people are equal Government owns everything People own the government