Presentation on theme: "NIGHT A History of the Jewish People Just as despair can come to one only from other human beings, hope, too, can be given to one only by other human beings."— Presentation transcript:
NIGHT A History of the Jewish People Just as despair can come to one only from other human beings, hope, too, can be given to one only by other human beings. -Elie Weisel.
In Search of the Promised Land In about 1400 BC the Israelites went to Egypt searching for food during a famine. At first they were welcomed, but later they were enslaved by the Egyptians. While slaves, it is believed that many of the Israelites became part of the work force that built the pyramids.
In Search of the Promised Land The Biblical Story of Moses: Soon after the Israelites had been enslaved the Pharaoh decided that all newborn male Israelites were to be killed. Moses was adopted by an Egyptian princess who found him floating in the Nile. After murdering a cruel Egyptian overseer, Moses fled Egypt. While in exile, he was visited by God through a burning bush. Moses was told that he would lead his people out of Egypt and to the promised land.
In Search of the Promised Land For 40 years the Israelites traveled, searching for their homeland. During this time, Moses received from God the Ten Commandments. Finally, after the death of Moses, the Israelites arrived in Canaan, the land promised to them by God.
Time Line of Israel 1270 BCMoses led Israelites out of bondage in Egypt 960 BCKing David captured Jerusalem and made it his capital 928 BCThe northern half became the Kingdom of Israel and the southern half became the Kingdom of Judah, ruled by the Phoenicians 722 BCAssyria conquers Israel 586 BCBabylon destroyed Jerusalem; population of Judah exiled to Babylon 539 BCPersians capture Babylon 538 BCThe emperor permits Jews in Babylon to return to Judah 332 BCAlexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire 40 BCRome conquered Judah 40 - 6 ADHerod's kingdom under Roman tutelage 6 - 66 ADDirect Roman rule 70 ADJewish rebellion ends when Romans destroy Jerusalem 135 ADAll Jews are barred from Jerusalem after second uprising 640 ADMuslims conquer Judea
Jesus of Nazareth He was born in 5 BC in Bethlehem to a Jewish family. He began his ministry after he was baptized by John “the baptizer”. He was known as an itinerant preacher, teacher, and healer. He taught by telling stories called parables. While in Jerusalem during Passover, Jesus attacked several merchants who were selling items inside the temple. This brought him to the attention of Roman officials, and lead to his crucifixion.
Jesus of Nazareth After his death, his disciples began to spread the word of God as they understood it through the teachings of Jesus. These teachings were written down and became the New Testament. When added to the Jewish Torah (Old Testament), they became the Bible. Eventually, these teaching, with roots heavy in the Jewish faith, became known as Christianity.
Jesus of Nazareth At first, Christians were persecuted by the Romans, until Constantine I had a vision of a cross before a battle in 312. He order the sign of the cross painted on every shield. His troops won the battle, and thereafter Christianity was official religion of the Roman Empire. Eventually the people who followed the new Roman religion became known as Roman Catholics. All non-Catholics were persecuted throughout the Holy Roman Empire.
Muhammad He was born in 570 AD. At the age of 12, he visited Syria where he was first exposed to Jews and Christians. At the age of 40 he was visited by the angel Gabriel who came to him with messages from God. These messages were later written down and became the Koran. His followers became know as Muslims, and the religion was known as Islam which means “surrender to the will of Allah”.
Muhammad Early in his career, Muhammad respected the Jews, and his early teachings appeared to borrow from Jewish tradition. Muhammad became critical of the Jews once it became clear that they would not accept him as a prophet.
Muhammad Muhammad began to eliminate the Jewish influence on his beliefs by changing certain traditions, including: The direction one should face when praying was changed from Jerusalem to Mecca, The Jewish dietary laws were changed, Changed his origin statement that Arabs were descendants of Abraham through his son Ishmael, to Arabs ONLY were descended from Abraham. An immediate consequences of these changes was the eviction of two Jewish tribes from Medina and the murder of the third. Long term effects of these changes are the religious and political conflicts that exist between the two groups to this day.
The Crusades 1095Pope Urban II launched the Crusades. The goal was to launch a counterattack against the Seljuk's in Anatolia Defeat the Muslims in Syria and Palestine and Retake Jerusalem from the Egyptians. This First Crusade was successful in slaughtering 70,0000 Muslims 1144 The Muslims got organized and reclaim the city of Odessa 1145 Second Crusade was launched; these Crusaders fell into ambushes 1187Muslims recapture Jerusalem The Third Crusade won unimportant cities for the Crusaders. 1202Fourth Crusade saw Crusaders plundering Constantinople 1217Fifth Crusade failed when reinforcements never showed 1228Frederick II tried diplomatic negotiations and won 10-years of peace 1244Muslims captured Jerusalem launching the seventh Crusade; the Crusaders didn’t guard their flank and were ambushed with a flood 1270Last major Crusade ended quickly when King Louis died
Three Religions – One God Muslims had roots in Christianity and Judaism Christianity had roots in Judaism All three religions saw Israel as a Holy land The Christians and Muslims spent 150 years fighting for control of Israel The end result was that the Muslims gained control and the Jews were evicted from their “homeland”.
1478-1834 The Spanish Inquisition Beginning with St. John Chrysostom, an early Christian leader, the Jewish people were blamed for the death of Jesus Christ, even though it was the Romans who ordered his death. Jews were viewed as infidels and were slaughtered during the Crusades. For example, the entire Jewish population in Barcelona was slaughtered by an angry mob.
1478-1834 The Spanish Inquisition Spain was the strongest country in the world. It was ruled by Isabella and Ferdinand who had funded Christopher Columbus in his search for a new trade route. Isabella had decided to adopt the Catholic religion. She used the Inquisitions to unify and define her country, to gain money from those who were persecuted.
1478-1834 Spanish Inquisition At first, Jews were given the choice of converting to Christianity or dying. Many pretended to convert while secretly continuing to practice their religion. In time, Christians became wise to the deception and decided to root out the heretics. Further, Jews were often well educated, making them a prosperous and influential group of people. This made many Christians envious. In 1478, Pope Sixtus IV formerly began the Spanish Inquisition.
1478-1834 Spanish Inquisition First an anonymous informer accused someone. The accused was then tortured until he confessed. Tortures included having fingernails pulled off, loosing your tongue, experiencing the rack, and being stabbed with sharp objects in sensitive places. Once the accused confessed, he was allowed to choose how he would die: strangulation or burning.
1478-1834 Spanish Inquisition Other countries, including France and England had their own Inquisitions. No one was spared, not even pregnant mothers. 323,362 people were murdered in Spain alone.
Present Day At the end of World War II, the United Nations voted to return Israel to the Jewish people. On May 14, 1948, Israel became a state. Almost immediately, Israel, which had virtually no heavy artillery, no tanks, and no airplanes, had to defend itself against Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and Iraq! The United Nations did nothing. Although the Jews won, over coming tremendous odds, they lost the Old City of Jerusalem. Again, the United Nations did nothing. Today, Israel reports several terrorist attacks each year, many by extremist religious groups.