Presentation on theme: "Notes 1: The Ism’s Modern US History March 17th, 2011."— Presentation transcript:
Notes 1: The Ism’s Modern US History March 17th, 2011
Links Between WWI and WWII The United States was not the only country that experienced an economic depression following the First World War. However in Europe, these troubles opened the door for dictators and revolutions.
Links Between WWI and WWII Several of the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles had a long lasting impact on Germany and it’s people that were in many ways a catalyst for WWII.
Links Between WWI and WWII Germany was forced to pay $32 billion in war reparations. Germany couldn’t not afford to pay this amount and as a result fell into an economic depression. The League of Nations had no peacekeeping forces or way of enforcing the peace. The United States also refused to join. After losing so many men during WWI, few countries felt compelled to provide international aid.
Benito Mussolini Originally a socialist, Mussolini was a journalist during the onset of WWI. However because the Socialist party did not agree with Italy’s involvement, Mussolini broke from them and joined the army. He was wounded in 1917 but his experience during the war drove him to create a new political system.
Fascism Fascism is a type of government and a political ideology that was created in Italy in March of 1919.
Fascism As a government Active Dynamic Embraces struggle Willing to be violent State interests are more important than individuals Youthful As an ideology Anti-Pacifist Anti-Democratic Anti-Marxist Rejects class war Anti-liberal Willing to reduce individual freedoms Places state above the individual Nationalistic
Fascist Rise to Power Shortly after WWI, close to a million Italians went on strike and socialist inspired land seizures spread across the country. Many who feared a communist revolution similar to what happened in Russia turned to Mussolini and his fascist followers. Fascists began to interfere in the socialist party and in turn gained widespread support.
Fascist Rise to Power Three years later in 1922, Mussolini and his followers know as the “Black Shirts” marched on Rome in efforts to show the power behind the movement. Shortly thereafter King Victor Emmanuel II named Mussolini the prime minister of Italy.
Adolf Hitler Hitler was born in Vienna, Austria and spent his youth there with aspirations of becoming a painter. He moved to Germany shortly before WWI and joined the army. He worked as a regimental runner but was injured in the line of duty. After the war he remained in Germany working for the army and was sent to observe the German Worker’s Party.
Nazism Nazism is a type of government and a political ideology that was created in Germany during WWI
Nazism As a government Central direction of the entire economy Single mass party mobilizing the population Official monopoly on mass communications Supervision of everyone by a pervasive leader Single official ideology projecting a final state of making and claiming priority over both the legal order and the individual conscience As an ideology Anti-Democratic Anti –Marxist Anti-Communism Racist Anti-Semitism Anti-Slavism Social Darwinism Nationalistic
Nazism Hitler was impressed with the doctrine of the DAP and quickly joined. Because of his public speaking skills he quickly emerged as the party leader. Hitler changed the name to the National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP) – more commonly known as the Nazi Party. He referred to himself as Der Fuhrer (The Leader).
Nazism The NSDAP appealed to individuals who were frustrated and felt powerless – unemployed ex- soldiers, people who had lost their businesses after the war, etc. The Nazi Party provided an explanation of history, a promise of a bright future and someone to blame for personal and national troubles.
Nazism Hitler and the NSDAP had three goals for Germany and it’s citizens. A German Empire should exist where all German- speaking people could be united. German people needed more room to live or lebensraum so the country needed to expand “Aryan” Germans would form a master race – particularly those with lighter coloring. All other people were considered inferior. This included all people of color, those with disabilities, gypsies and especially Jews
Nazism Hitler recognized the need to centralize the party structure and unite the NSDAP. He proceeded to assign important symbols to the group such as the swastika and hail salute, as well as badges and uniforms for the auxiliary groups he created such as the Sturmabteilung (SA) and Schutzstaffel (SS).
The party grew over the next 10 years and by 1932 was the most powerful party in the German parliament with 37% of the votes. In 1933, President Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor (Prime Minister) of Germany. Within 6 months Hitler established a Nazi dictatorship, which he called “The Third Reich.”
Nazism Once in power Hitler used propaganda to maintain his power and to implement his policies. The propaganda sought to create external enemies to the German people and demonstrate the country’s military power. It was everywhere – books, newspapers, films, radio, posters, and even school textbooks.
Militarism Militarism is a type of government that believes a nation should have a strong military capability and use it aggressively to defend or promote the country’s interests. Militarists believe that military type discipline is a key factor in a successful and prosperous society.
Militarism in Japan Prior to WWII, military leaders in Japan sought to take control of the country. They were eventually able to overthrow the emperor of Japan, allowing him to remain as a figurehead. The militarists held similar beliefs as Hitler about the need for more living space to accommodate their growing population.
Militarism in Japan So in 1931, Japanese military launched an attack on Manchuria, a Chinese province that was rich in natural resources. The success of this campaign put the militarists firmly in control of the government.
Militarism in Japan The League of Nations sent representatives to Manchuria to investigate the situation and released a report condemning Japan for their hostile take over of the region. Japan simply quit the league.
Hideki Tojo Tojo was a General in the Japanese Army and rose to become the Prime Minister of Japan throughout WWII. In 1937 after the invasion of Manchuria, Tojo led an invasion of China and began plans to invade several colonies throughout the Pacific. Many historians believe that Tojo is responsible for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Where’s the US? As Japan continued to invade countries in Southeast Asia and Indochina, tensions grew between the US and Japan. In efforts to show their disapproval of Japan’s continued aggression, the US suspended all trade with Japan, including oil and steel, two resources integral to the military success of Japan.
Isolationism in America While all of this is going on, the United States is actively trying to stay out of any armed conflict. Following WWI the US, along with 61 other nations, signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which promised to never go to war again. Major Flaw: The Kellogg- Briand Pact did not account for when a country would violate the pact.
Isolationism in America Throughout the early 1930’s general feeling amongst Americans was that they had been forced into WWI by greedy bankers and arms dealers who stood to turn a profit off of war manufacturing. A poll was taken in 1937, which revealed that 70% of Americans believed the US should not have entered WWI.
America First Committee The America First Committee was a non-interventionist group that was vehemently opposed to America entering WWII. They focused on putting pressure on FDR to enforce the Neutrality Act, keeping us out of the war. One of its most notable members was the famous pilot, Charles Lindbergh.
The Neutrality Acts A series of neutrality acts were passed in the US beginning in 1935. The overall goal of these acts was to keep the US out of any future wars. The first two acts prohibited the sale of arms or loans to nations at war or in a civil war.
The Neutrality Acts In 1937 however, Roosevelt found it impossible to remain neutral when Japan launched an attack on China. Roosevelt refused to enforce the Neutrality Acts, reasoning that Japan had never actually declared war and continued to provide arms and supplies to the Chinese.
The Neutrality Acts Several months later Roosevelt spoke out against Isolationism, asking that all peace-loving nations isolate or “quarantine” aggressive nations in an effort to stop the spread of war and destruction. Following this speech the White House was flooded with letters accusing Roosevelt with leading the United States to war.
Critics of Isolationism Although the majority of Americans wanted to remain uninvolved in international affairs there were a few critics of our unwillingness to help those abroad.