Presentation on theme: "The Chemistry of Life! Organic Molecules AndWater."— Presentation transcript:
The Chemistry of Life! Organic Molecules AndWater
Organic Molecules Defined All compounds that contain carbon atoms.
Properties of Carbon Carbon has 4 valence electrons (electrons that are not paired.) Carbon can bond / share electrons with many different types of atoms. Carbon can share electrons with other carbon atoms. Carbon can be in long chains or rings.
Structure of Carbon
Carbohydrates Elements – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen Building Blocks – (Monomers) simple sugars Energy source for plants and animals. Structural elements of cells and tissues. Storage form of energy (ATP). - As glycogen in the body (Liver / Muscles) - As glucose in the blood stream - As cellulose in plants
Structure of Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose Chemical Formula – C 6 H 12 O 6 D-Galactose
Lipids Elements – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen (Mostly Carbon and Hydrogen) Building Blocks – (Monomers) Glycerol and Fatty Acids DO NOT dissolve in water. (Hydrophobic) Function to store excess energy as fat - Combine to form cell membranes - Act as insulation - Form Cholesterol, Vitamin D and Bile Salts.
Fatty Acids – Saturated or Un- Saturated; What’s the Difference? Saturated -A long chain of single bonded carbon / carbon atoms. -Becomes fluid only at high temperatures. -Difficult for the body to breakdown (digest). Becomes stored as fat. Un-Saturated - -A series of one or more double bonds between carbon atoms. - -Fluid at various temperatures. - -More easily digested and used / excreted.
Proteins Elements – Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen Building Blocks – (Monomers) Amino Acids. (20 different amino acids.) Function to form; - Enzymes – (Special proteins that speed up chemical reactions.) - Antibodies to fight disease - Structural Proteins to make such things as hair - Transport Proteins such as hemoglobin to carry oxygen - Hormones
Amino Acid Structure H H O N C C H R OH Amino Carboxyl Group
14 of the 20 amino acids are found / made in our bodies. The other 6 must be eaten. Without these essential amino acids, our bodies will start breaking down our own tissues.
More About ENZYMES!
WATER Chemical Formula = H 2 O Hydrogen’s are slightly positive. Oxygen is negative. H’s bond to O’s.
Properties of H 2 O 1. Cohesion = Water is attracted to and bonds with other water molecules. Ex. Surface Tension
Properties of H 2 O 2 Adhesion = The attraction of water molecules to different molecules. Ex. Capillary Action
Dehydration Synthesis The removal a water molecule from two or more small compounds to make one larger compound.
Hydrolysis Hydrolysis is the addiction of water to a larger compound to make it two or more smaller compounds.