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Separation of Matter. Matter is MATTER Can it be physically separated? (ex: filtration or evaporation ) Is it made up of only one type of atom on the.

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Presentation on theme: "Separation of Matter. Matter is MATTER Can it be physically separated? (ex: filtration or evaporation ) Is it made up of only one type of atom on the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Separation of Matter

2 Matter is MATTER Can it be physically separated? (ex: filtration or evaporation ) Is it made up of only one type of atom on the periodic table? Is the composition uniform throughout? YES NO Anything that has mass and takes up space (volume) Mixture Pure substance Homogenous HeterogeneousCompoundElement

3 Types of matter Pure substances- 1. element ex: silver 2. compound ex: NaHCO 3 Uniform, unchanging composition. Pure substances exist as either elements or compounds. Found on the periodic table cannot be separated into simpler substances by physical or chemical means It takes a nuclear reaction to break them apart! two or more elements that are chemically bonded. A chemical change is required to combine elements into compounds, or to separate compounds back into elements.

4 Gas / Liquid: Soda (CO 2 in H 2 O) Gas / Gas: Air (Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, Water Vapor) Liquid / Liquid: Gasoline (mixture of liquid hydrocarbons); Rubbing Alcohol (Isopropyl Alcohol with water); Vinegar (Acetic Acid with water) Solid / Solid: Alloy (mixture of metals), such as brass, steel, 14-karat gold Mixtures 2 types 1. heterogeneous mixture ex: 2. homogeneous mixture ex: Not uniform throughout. Made of very large molecules. Uniform throughout: also called solutions: made of very small molecules.

5 Example 1 Soda Rust Iced tea Chicken soup Dirt Chlorine Sugar Gasoline water heterogenous compound homogenous heterogenous element compound homogenous compound

6 Chemical and Physical Properties

7 Remember, density is tricky! While it’s a number, it’s always the same for a substance, no matter how much of it you have! ___Chemical____ properties describe the ability of a substance to undergo changes that transform it into different substances. Some sort of chemical reaction must be performed in order to observe these properties. ___Physical___ properties describe the substance itself. They can be observed or measured without altering the chemical identity of the substance (meaning no chemical reaction is necessary to view these properties)....

8 CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTY EXAMPLES

9 Types of physical properties!!! 1. Extensive physical properties 2. Intensive physical properties DO DEPEND on the amount of matter present DO NOT DEPEND on the amount of matter present **Example 2: Place an I(Intensive) or E(extensive for each of the following properties: Malleability (hammer into sheet) IMass E Melting pointIOdor I Ability to react with acid IVolume E Ability to react with base IClarity I Ability to react with waterIColor I Ability to rustIConsistency I Ability to tarnishIDensity I Viscosity (resistance to flow)Ilength E Boiling pointIArea E Ability to conduct electricityILuster (shine) I Dissolves in waterIHardness I Amount of Energy E Ductility (ability to be molded) I Ability to explode (combust) I Flammability (burning) I

10 Chemical and Physical Changes

11 Changes Physical Changes Chemical Changes An unexpected change in _______ energy (hotter or colder) A _________ is produced (bubbling) An unexpected _________ change A solid _____________ is produced (cloudiness) An unexpected apparent _________ change (means that a gas was involved) New __________ formed _________ produced (fire) How do we know if its chemical? Do not change the identity of a substance. Changes of state are all considered to be physical changes. Just remember: 1) nothing new has formed 2) it is still the same substance Transform one or more substances into new, different substances. They involve some sort of reaction taking place! heat gas color precipitate mass odor light

12 Example 3: All of the processes listed below are part of the digestive breakdown of food. For each of the following, classify them as a chemical or physical change, and give a reason why. – A. Chewing food – B. Breakdown of proteins – C. Breakdown of carbohydrates – D. Churning of food – E. Starch breakdown – F. food reacting with HCl Physical Chemical Physical Chemical

13 States of Matter and Phase Changes

14 States of Matter SOLID LIQUIDGAS Molecules _________ closeMolecules CLOSEMolecules _____ apart ________ shape _________ volume Takes shape of __________ ________ volume Takes shape of ___________ Takes volume of ___________ VERY RESTRICTED motion – rotation and vibration in place only LIMITED freedom of motion – there is some degree of fluidity FREE TO MOVE in all directions – high degree of fluidity HIGH density (typically measured in g/mL) MEDIUM-HIGH density (less than that of solid EXCEPT for water!) LOW density (typically measured in g/L) ______ compressible (incompressible)_________ compressible________compressed into smaller volumes Does NOT expand much with increases in temperature Expands SLIGHTLY with increases in temperature HIGHLY expansive with increases in temperature (assuming the volume of the container can change!) Diffusion SO SLOW you can hardly notice it – must ramp temperature up really high to facilitate diffusion Diffuses EASILY but less rapidly than the gaseous state Diffuses EASILY and QUICKLY Very Definite Not container Definite Somewhat far container Easily

15 States of Matter SOLIDLIQUID GAS Molecules _________ closeMolecules CLOSEMolecules _____ apart ________ shape _________ volume Takes shape of __________ ________ volume Takes shape of ___________ Takes volume of ___________ VERY RESTRICTED motion – rotation and vibration in place only LIMITED freedom of motion – there is some degree of fluidity FREE TO MOVE in all directions – high degree of fluidity HIGH density (typically measured in g/mL) MEDIUM-HIGH density (less than that of solid EXCEPT for water!) LOW density (typically measured in g/L) ______ compressible (incompressible)_________ compressible________compressed into smaller volumes Does NOT expand much with increases in temperature Expands SLIGHTLY with increases in temperature HIGHLY expansive with increases in temperature (assuming the volume of the container can change!) Diffusion SO SLOW you can hardly notice it – must ramp temperature up really high to facilitate diffusion Diffuses EASILY but less rapidly than the gaseous state Diffuses EASILY and QUICKLY Very Definite Not container Definite Somewhat

16 States of Matter SOLID LIQUID GAS Molecules _________ closeMolecules CLOSEMolecules _____ apart ________ shape _________ volume Takes shape of __________ ________ volume Takes ____________ of container VERY RESTRICTED motion – rotation and vibration in place only LIMITED freedom of motion – there is some degree of fluidity FREE TO MOVE in all directions – high degree of fluidity HIGH density (typically measured in g/mL) MEDIUM-HIGH density (less than that of solid EXCEPT for water!) LOW density (typically measured in g/L) ______ compressible (incompressible)_________ compressible________compressed into smaller volumes Does NOT expand much with increases in temperature Expands SLIGHTLY with increases in temperature HIGHLY expansive with increases in temperature (assuming the volume of the container can change!) Diffusion SO SLOW you can hardly notice it – must ramp temperature up really high to facilitate diffusion Diffuses EASILY but less rapidly than the gaseous state Diffuses EASILY and QUICKLY Very Definite Not container Definite Somewhat far volume shape Easily

17 SOLID LIQUIDGAS Molecules _________ close Molecules CLOSEMolecules _____ apart ________ shape _________ volume Takes shape of __________ ________ volume Takes shape of ___________ Takes volume of ___________ VERY RESTRICTED motion – rotation and vibration in place only LIMITED freedom of motion – there is some degree of fluidity FREE TO MOVE in all directions – high degree of fluidity HIGH density (typically measured in g/mL) MEDIUM-HIGH density (less than that of solid EXCEPT for water!) LOW density (typically measured in g/L) ______ compressible (incompressible) _________ compressible ________compressed into smaller volumes Does NOT expand much with increases in temperature Expands SLIGHTLY with increases in temperature HIGHLY expansive with increases in temperature (assuming the volume of the container can change!) Diffusion SO SLOW you can hardly notice it – must ramp temperature up really high to facilitate diffusion Diffuses EASILY but less rapidly than the gaseous state Diffuses EASILY and QUICKLY Example Problem A student determined that the substance he was working with took the shape of its container, had molecules that moved fast and were very far apart. He also determined that the substance was easily compressed into a smaller container. GAS

18 PHASE CHANGES -the process of absorbing or releasing energy to change from one phase to another phase The types of phase changes include… ____________: liquid changing to vapor(boiling) liquid + energy  vapor (gas) ______________: vapor changing to liquid vapor  liquid + energy ___________: solid changing to liquid solid + energy  liquid ______________: liquid changing to solid liquid  solid + energy _______________: solid changing directly to vapor without going through the liquid phase solid + energy  vapor _______________: vapor changing directly to solid without going through the liquid phase vapor  solid + energy Vaporization Condensation Melting Freezing Sublimation Deposition

19 You will notice that all of the phase changes above either required an input of energy or they released energy. Each phase change is either: Exothermic: or Endothermic: Example 3-7. Which phase changes are exothermic? Example 3-8. Which phase changes are endothermic? A process that releases heat (heat exits the system) A process that takes in heat (heat enters the system) Condensation, Freezing, Deposition Melting, vaporization, sublimation

20 Thank you for entering the magical world of matter!!


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