2 PropertiesExtensive = Characteristic of matter in which the amount of the material affects the propertyIntensive = Characteristic of matter in which the amount of the material does not affect the property
3 List examples of extensive and intensive properties
4 Measuring Matter Length Meter (m) Volume Mass Temperature density MeasurementUnitinstrumentLengthMeter (m)Meter stick, ruler, odometerVolumeLiter (l) or cubic meter cm3Ruler or graduated cylinderMassGram (g) or kilogram (kg)Scale or balanceTemperatureCelsius (C0) or Kelvin (K)Thermometerdensityg/cm3 or g/mlBalance and ruler or graduated cylinder
5 Classifying Matter: matter can be classified into two main types Mixturecontains more than one kind of matter that can be separated by physical meansPure Substancesis matter that cannot be separated by physical meanssugarTrail mix
6 Two Types of substances Elementshas one kind type of atomexamples:helium (He)carbon (C)hydrogen (H)oxygen (O)Compoundsa substance that contains more than one type of atomexamples:H2O (pure water)NaCl (sodium chloride)
7 MatterExamples of elements:mercurygoldaluminumiodine
9 Examples of pure substances that are compounds NaCl = table saltWater =H2OSugar = C6H12O6
10 Basic units of substances are always in motion Atomis the smallest possible particle of an elementMoleculeis the smallest particle of the compound that retains the properties of the compound
11 Types of mixtures Heterogeneous mixture the composition is not uniform (different)examples:chicken noodle soupmixed nutssoilHomogeneous MixtureThe composition is uniform (same)examples:salt watertap waterbrass
12 What type of mixture is it? homogeneousheterogeneousSalt water
13 Solutions, Suspensions, and Colloids It isn’t always easy to tell the difference between a homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture.Based on the size of its largest particles, a mixture can be classified as a solution, a suspension, or a colloid.
14 SolutionsWhen substances dissolve and form a homogeneous mixture, the mixture that forms is called a solution.
15 All mixtures can be separated. Methods to separate mixtures1. Sorting2. Filtering3. Heating4. Cooling5. distillation
16 Matter Substances mixtures Compounds elements Heterogeneous mixture Homogeneous mixtureelements
17 Two types of Properties of Matter 1. A physical property is any characteristic of a material that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the substance in the material.A chemical property can be observed only when the substances in a sample of matter are changing into different substances.
18 Physical Properties Viscosity= Resistance of a liquid to flowing High viscosity
19 Physical Properties of matter Conductivity = the ability of matter to transfer heat or electricity
20 Physical PropertiesMalleability is the ability of a solid to be hammered without shattering.diamondHardness is used to compare two materials. If a material can scratch another then it is harder.
21 Physical PropertiesMelting point is the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid (Water in the form of ice melts at 00C)Boiling Point is the temperature at which a substance boils. (water boils at 1000C)
22 Physical Properties of Matter Density is the ratio of the mass to volume of a substance.
23 Chemical PropertiesA chemical property is any ability to produce a change in the composition of matter.Chemical properties can be observed only when the substance in a sample of matter are changing into different substances.
24 Observing Chemical Properties Flammability is a material’s ability to burn in the presence of oxygen.
25 Observing chemical properties The property that describes how readily a substance combines chemically with other substances is reactivity.Examples:RustingChemical reaction
26 Indentifying Chemical Change Common types of evidence for a chemical change are1. color2. production of gas3. formation of a precipitate4. Thermal energy change
28 States of Matter Solid has a definite shape and definite volume molecules vibrate slow but cannot switch places with other molecules
29 States of Matter Liquid has a definite volume but no definite shape Molecules move faster and slip out of position
30 States of Matter Gas has no definite shape or volume molecules move so fast that they bounce out of the liquid state and become a gas.
31 Temperature= the average energy of the molecules
32 Changing States of Matter Melting pointtemperature at which it changed from solid to liquidBoiling pointtemperature at which it changes from a liquid to a gas
33 Changing state of matter Evaporationfast-moving molecules in a liquid can escape to become a gascooling because it take the energy (heat) away from the substanceCondensationmolecules in a gas slow down and change into a liquid
34 Changes in State of Matter Sublimationwhen a solid changes directly from a solid to a gas