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Properties of Matter. Essential Questions How does the state of matter define its properties? What are the real-life examples of molecules, atoms & ions?

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Presentation on theme: "Properties of Matter. Essential Questions How does the state of matter define its properties? What are the real-life examples of molecules, atoms & ions?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Properties of Matter

2 Essential Questions How does the state of matter define its properties? What are the real-life examples of molecules, atoms & ions? How are atoms, molecules & ions alike and how are they different? How can matter be classified? What are the essential components of solutions? Why is water the universal solvent? In what ways can matter be quantified? What units should be used to quantify matter? What are the chemical & physical properties of pure substances? How can chemical and physical changes be determined in a laboratory setting?

3 The Breakdown of Matter Matter Anything with MASS & VOLUME (solid, liquid, gas) Pure Substances Mixtures EQ: How can matter be classified?

4 MIXTURES Mixtures = two or more substances PHYSICALLY combined. Can be PHYSICALLY separated

5 Heterogeneous Mixtures Hetero = different Hetero = different Geneous = origin or beginning Geneous = origin or beginning has separations and/or boundaries has separations and/or boundaries can see to different parts can see to different parts Are ALL mixtures Are ALL mixtures

6 Heterogeneous Mixtures HeterogeneousMixtures Mixtures Physically combined substances

7 Homogeneous Mixtures Homeo = same Homeo = same Geneous = origin or beginning Geneous = origin or beginning matter of the SAME make-up matter of the SAME make-up (no boundaries) (no boundaries)

8 Homogeneous Mixtures HomogeneousMixtures Solutions Others alloys, colloids, etc.

9 Homogeneous Mixtures HomogeneousMixtures Solutions SoluteSolvent

10 Solutions EQ: What are the essential components of solutions? Homogeneous mixtures Homogeneous mixtures Physically NOT chemical combined Physically NOT chemical combined Solute = the substance BEING dissolved Solute = the substance BEING dissolved Solvent = the substance DOING the dissolving Solvent = the substance DOING the dissolving

11 Examples of Solutions Alloys = solid mixture or solution (brass, 14K gold, steel) Alloys = solid mixture or solution (brass, 14K gold, steel) Air = gas mixture or solution Air = gas mixture or solution Liquid solutions = sweet tea, coffee, milk, tap water Liquid solutions = sweet tea, coffee, milk, tap water EQ: Why is water the universal solvent?

12 Solution Properties Soluble = the solute is able to dissolve in the solvent Soluble = the solute is able to dissolve in the solvent Insoluble = the solute is NOT able to dissolve in the solvent Insoluble = the solute is NOT able to dissolve in the solvent

13 Descriptions of a Solution Diluted Solutions = small amount of solute and/or a large amount of solvent Diluted Solutions = small amount of solute and/or a large amount of solvent Concentrated Solutions = large amount of solute and/or a small amount of solvent Concentrated Solutions = large amount of solute and/or a small amount of solvent Saturated Solution = a solution that will NOT dissolve any more solute Saturated Solution = a solution that will NOT dissolve any more solute

14 An increase in temperature will allow more solute to dissolve in a solvent. The molecules of the solvent move faster and further apart allowing more room for more solute molecules.

15 3 2 1 Name three properties of solutions : 1. __________________________________ 2. __________________________________ 3. __________________________________ Name two types of mixtures & two types of pure substances. 1. ____________________________________ 2. ____________________________________ What is the one key in distinguishing between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures 1. _____________________________________

16 Pure Substances ElementsCompounds

17 chemically pure substances chemically pure substances only one part or one kind of matter only one part or one kind of matter Elements = found on the periodic table Elements = found on the periodic table Compounds = 2 or more elements that have combined CHEMICALLY Compounds = 2 or more elements that have combined CHEMICALLY EQ: How are atoms, molecules & ions alike and how are they different?

18 Elements EQ: What are the real-life examples of molecules, atoms & ions? 90 natural occurring elements 90 natural occurring elements found on the periodic table found on the periodic table Atoms = smallest part of an element Atoms = smallest part of an element represented by symbols represented by symbols

19 Compounds 2 or more elements that have combined CHEMICALLY 2 or more elements that have combined CHEMICALLY Molecules = smallest part of a compound Molecules = smallest part of a compound represented by formulas represented by formulas

20 Elements & Compounds Pure Substances Elements Atoms Symbols Compounds Molecules Formulas

21 States of Matter Also called Phases of Matter Also called Phases of Matter Solids Solids Liquids Liquids Vapors (gases) Vapors (gases)

22 Solids Have a definite shape Have a definite shape Have a definite volume Have a definite volume Particles VIBRATE in place Particles VIBRATE in place

23 Liquids Have NO definite shape Have NO definite shape Have definite volume Have definite volume particles SLIDE freely particles SLIDE freely

24 Gases (vapor) Have NO definite shape Have NO definite shape Have NO definite volume Have NO definite volume particles fill the volume of the container particles fill the volume of the container

25 Solids, Liquids & Gases Solids = can form crystals = solid where the particle are arranged into repeating patterns. Solids = can form crystals = solid where the particle are arranged into repeating patterns. Liquids = physical property of Viscosity = thickness – the resistance to flow. Liquids = physical property of Viscosity = thickness – the resistance to flow. Gases = volume of gases depend greatly on pressure and temperature. Gases = volume of gases depend greatly on pressure and temperature. EQ: How does the state of matter define its properties?

26 Phase Changes Melting Melting Freezing Freezing Vaporization Vaporization Condensation Condensation Sublimation Sublimation physical changes physical changes

27 Melting the process of changing from a solid to a liquid the process of changing from a solid to a liquid energy is being put into the substance energy is being put into the substance melting point = the temperature at which melting occurs – physical property melting point = the temperature at which melting occurs – physical property the melting point of water is 0ºC the melting point of water is 0ºC

28 Freezing the process of changing from a liquid to a solid the process of changing from a liquid to a solid energy is being pulled out of the substance energy is being pulled out of the substance freezing point = same temperature as the melting point freezing point = same temperature as the melting point (used mainly in weather) (used mainly in weather)

29 Vaporization the process of changing from a liquid to a gas the process of changing from a liquid to a gas energy is being put into the substance energy is being put into the substance evaporation evaporation boiling boiling

30 Evaporation vaporization that occurs at the surface of the liquid vaporization that occurs at the surface of the liquid

31 Boiling vaporization that occurs throughout the liquid vaporization that occurs throughout the liquid boiling point = the temperature at which boiling occurs boiling point = the temperature at which boiling occurs the boiling point of water is 100ºC the boiling point of water is 100ºC

32 Condensation the process of changing from a gas to a liquid the process of changing from a gas to a liquid energy is being pulled out of the substance energy is being pulled out of the substance

33 Sublimation the process of changing from a solid to a gas the process of changing from a solid to a gas energy is being put into the substance energy is being put into the substance ex: dry ice (CO 2 ) ex: dry ice (CO 2 )

34 3 2 1 Name three phases of matter : 1. __________________________________ 2. __________________________________ 3. __________________________________ Name two types of vaporization. 1. ____________________________________ 2. ____________________________________ What is the so different about sublimation? 1. _____________________________________

35 Properties of Matter characteristics that can identify and describe matter. characteristics that can identify and describe matter. Physical Properties Physical Properties Chemical Properties Chemical Properties EQ: What are the chemical & physical properties of pure substances?

36 Physical Properties observable properties observable properties physical change = changes that occur while the substance remains the same. physical change = changes that occur while the substance remains the same. ex: phase change ex: phase change

37 Examples of Physical Properties density (d=m/v) density (d=m/v) color color melting point & boiling point melting point & boiling point hardness hardness phase of matter phase of matter malleable malleable ductile ductile taste taste conductivity conductivity luster luster texture texture solubility solubility

38 Chemical Properties properties that describes how the substance interacts with other substances or will act chemically properties that describes how the substance interacts with other substances or will act chemically chemical change = an actual chemical reaction takes place and a NEW substance is formed chemical change = an actual chemical reaction takes place and a NEW substance is formed ex: combustion ex: combustion

39 Examples of Chemical Properties flammability flammability reactivity reactivity combustion combustion oxidation oxidation reacts with _____ reacts with _____ endothermic endothermic exothermic exothermic forms a precipitate forms a precipitate

40 Chemical Change EQ: How can chemical and physical changes be determined in a laboratory setting? Color change Color change Temperature change = reaction is either endothermic or exothermic Temperature change = reaction is either endothermic or exothermic Gas given off Gas given off Precipitate formed = solid formed in the reaction of two liquids Precipitate formed = solid formed in the reaction of two liquids

41 Energy (temperature) Changes in Reactions Endothermic reactions Endothermic reactions –Energy is put into the reaction –Reaction stops as soon as energy is no longer put into the reaction –Ex: cooking Exothermic reactions Exothermic reactions –Energy is given off in the reactions –Ex: burning

42 Exothermic Reactions May require energy to be put into to the reaction in order to start or activate the reaction May require energy to be put into to the reaction in order to start or activate the reaction Activation Energy = energy required to start an exothermic reaction Activation Energy = energy required to start an exothermic reaction

43 Reducing Activation Energy Catalysts are often used to reduce the activation energy required to start an exothermic reaction Catalysts are often used to reduce the activation energy required to start an exothermic reaction

44 Chemical change vs. Physical change ask the question, Has a new substance been formed? ask the question, Has a new substance been formed? yes = chemical changeyes = chemical change no = physical changeno = physical change

45 Examples of Problems ex: 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O ex: 2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O hydrogen gas combines with oxygen gas to form water hydrogen gas combines with oxygen gas to form water a new substance is formed a new substance is formed a chemical reaction occurs a chemical reaction occurs EQ: How can chemical and physical changes be determined in a laboratory setting?

46 Examples of Problems : N 2 + O 2 + CO 2 = air : N 2 + O 2 + CO 2 = air nitrogen gas combines with oxygen gas and carbon dioxide gas and a few other gases mix nitrogen gas combines with oxygen gas and carbon dioxide gas and a few other gases mix NO chemical reaction takes place NO chemical reaction takes place physical change has taken place in the gases physical change has taken place in the gases

47 Examples of Problems Ice melting Ice melting Phases change Phases change Solid Liquid Solid Liquid No new substance is formed…it is still water No new substance is formed…it is still water Physical change Physical change

48 Malleable A physical property that describes being able to be flatten or pounded onto sheets A physical property that describes being able to be flatten or pounded onto sheets This property is associated with metals. This property is associated with metals.

49 Ductile A physical property that describes being able to be drawn into a wire. A physical property that describes being able to be drawn into a wire. This property is associated with metals. This property is associated with metals.

50 Luster A physical property that describes how a substance reflects light A physical property that describes how a substance reflects light This property is often associated with minerals, gem stones, metals and nonmetals. This property is often associated with minerals, gem stones, metals and nonmetals.

51 Oxidation A chemical property describing a substance reaction with oxygen A chemical property describing a substance reaction with oxygen slow oxidation = rusting, tarnish, corrosion slow oxidation = rusting, tarnish, corrosion fast oxidation = burning, exploding, combustion fast oxidation = burning, exploding, combustion

52 Density The amount of matter in a given amount of space The amount of matter in a given amount of space Density = mass ÷ volume Density = mass ÷ volume D = m/v D = ? D = m/v D = ? Mass = m = 96.5 grams Volume = v = 5 cm 3 D = 96.5 g / 5 cm 3 = 19.3 g/cm g/cm 3 is the density of gold The density of water = 1.0 g/mL

53 BUOYANCE The ability of a fluid (liquid or gas) to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it. If buoyant force = objects weight the object will float

54 GAS LAWS Boyles Law: pressure and volume Volume decreases as Pressure increases Pressure decreases as Volume increases

55 Gas Laws Charless Law: temperature & volume Volume increases as Temperature increases Volume increases as Temperature increases Volume decreases as Temperature decreases Volume decreases as Temperature decreases


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