2Essential Questions How does the state of matter define its properties Essential Questions How does the state of matter define its properties? What are the real-life examples of molecules, atoms & ions? How are atoms, molecules & ions alike and how are they different? How can matter be classified? What are the essential components of solutions? Why is water the universal solvent? In what ways can matter be quantified? What units should be used to quantify matter? What are the chemical & physical properties of pure substances? How can chemical and physical changes be determined in a laboratory setting?
3The Breakdown of Matter Anything with MASS & VOLUME(solid, liquid, gas)Pure SubstancesMixturesEQ: How can matter be classified?
4MIXTURES Mixtures = two or more substances PHYSICALLY combined. Can be PHYSICALLY separated
5Heterogeneous Mixtures Hetero = differentGeneous = origin or beginninghas separations and/or boundariescan see to different partsAre ALL mixtures
10Solutions EQ: What are the essential components of solutions? Homogeneous mixturesPhysically NOT chemical combinedSolute = the substance BEING dissolvedSolvent = the substance DOING the dissolving
11EQ: Why is water the universal solvent? Examples of SolutionsAlloys = solid mixture or solution (brass, 14K gold, steel)Air = gas mixture or solutionLiquid solutions = sweet tea, coffee, milk, tap waterEQ: Why is water the universal solvent?
12Solution PropertiesSoluble = the solute is able to dissolve in the solventInsoluble = the solute is NOT able to dissolve in the solvent
13Descriptions of a Solution Diluted Solutions = small amount of solute and/or a large amount of solventConcentrated Solutions = large amount of solute and/or a small amount of solventSaturated Solution = a solution that will NOT dissolve any more solute
14An increase in temperature will allow more solute to dissolve in a solvent. The molecules of the solvent move faster and further apart allowing more room for more solute molecules.
153 2 1 Name three properties of solutions: 1. __________________________________2. __________________________________3. __________________________________3Name two types of mixtures & two types of pure substances.1. ____________________________________2. ____________________________________21What is the one key in distinguishing between homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures1. _____________________________________
17EQ: How are atoms, molecules & ions alike and how are they different? Pure Substanceschemically pure substancesonly one part or one kind of matterElements = found on the periodic tableCompounds = 2 or more elements that have combined CHEMICALLYEQ: How are atoms, molecules & ions alike and how are they different?
18Elements EQ: What are the real-life examples of molecules, atoms & ions? 90 natural occurring elementsfound on the periodic tableAtoms = smallest part of an elementrepresented by symbols
19Compounds 2 or more elements that have combined CHEMICALLY Molecules = smallest part of a compoundrepresented by formulas
20Elements & Compounds Pure Substances Elements Atoms Symbols Compounds MoleculesFormulas
21States of Matter Also called Phases of Matter Solids Liquids Vapors (gases)
22Solids Have a definite shape Have a definite volume Particles VIBRATE in place
23Liquids Have NO definite shape Have definite volume particles SLIDE freely
24Gases (vapor) Have NO definite shape Have NO definite volume particles fill the volume of the container
25EQ: How does the state of matter define its properties? Solids, Liquids & GasesSolids = can form crystals = solid where the particle are arranged into repeating patterns.Liquids = physical property of Viscosity = “thickness” – the resistance to flow.Gases = volume of gases depend greatly on pressure and temperature.EQ: How does the state of matter define its properties?
27Melting the process of changing from a solid to a liquid energy is being put into the substancemelting point = the temperature at which melting occurs – physical propertythe melting point of water is 0ºC
28Freezing the process of changing from a liquid to a solid energy is being pulled out of the substancefreezing point = same temperature as the melting point(used mainly in weather)
29Vaporization the process of changing from a liquid to a gas energy is being put into the substanceevaporationboiling
30Evaporationvaporization that occurs at the surface of the liquid
31Boiling vaporization that occurs throughout the liquid boiling point = the temperature at which boiling occursthe boiling point of water is 100ºC
32Condensation the process of changing from a gas to a liquid energy is being pulled out of the substance
33Sublimation the process of changing from a solid to a gas energy is being put into the substanceex: dry ice (CO2)
343 2 1 Name three phases of matter: 1. __________________________________2. __________________________________3. __________________________________3Name two types of vaporization.1. ____________________________________2. ____________________________________21What is the so different about sublimation?1. _____________________________________
35EQ: What are the chemical & physical properties of pure substances? Properties of Mattercharacteristics that can identify and describe matter.Physical PropertiesChemical PropertiesEQ: What are the chemical & physical properties of pure substances?
36Physical Properties observable properties physical change = changes that occur while the substance remains the same.ex: phase change
37Examples of Physical Properties density (d=m/v)colormelting point & boiling pointhardnessphase of mattermalleableductiletasteconductivitylustertexturesolubility
38Chemical Propertiesproperties that describes how the substance interacts with other substances or will act chemicallychemical change = an actual chemical reaction takes place and a NEW substance is formedex: combustion
39Examples of Chemical Properties flammabilityreactivitycombustionoxidationreacts with _____endothermicexothermicforms a precipitate
40Chemical Change EQ: How can chemical and physical changes be determined in a laboratory setting? Color changeTemperature change = reaction is either endothermic or exothermicGas given offPrecipitate formed = solid formed in the reaction of two liquids
41Energy (temperature) Changes in Reactions Endothermic reactionsEnergy is put into the reactionReaction stops as soon as energy is no longer put into the reactionEx: cookingExothermic reactionsEnergy is given off in the reactionsEx: burning
42Exothermic ReactionsMay require energy to be put into to the reaction in order to start or activate the reactionActivation Energy = energy required to start an exothermic reaction
43Reducing Activation Energy Catalysts are often used to reduce the activation energy required to start an exothermic reaction
44Chemical change vs. Physical change ask the question, “Has a new substance been formed?”“yes” = chemical change“no” = physical change
45Examples of Problems ex: 2H2 + O2 2H2O hydrogen gas combines with oxygen gas to form watera new substance is formeda chemical reaction occursEQ: How can chemical and physical changes be determined in a laboratory setting?
46Examples of Problems : N2 + O2 + CO2 = air nitrogen gas combines with oxygen gas and carbon dioxide gas and a few other gases mixNO chemical reaction takes placephysical change has taken place in the gases
47Examples of Problems Ice melting Phases change Solid Liquid No new substance is formed…it is still waterPhysical change
48MalleableA physical property that describes being able to be flatten or pounded onto sheetsThis property is associated with metals.
49DuctileA physical property that describes being able to be drawn into a wire.This property is associated with metals.
50LusterA physical property that describes how a substance reflects lightThis property is often associated with minerals, gem stones, metals and nonmetals.
51OxidationA chemical property describing a substance reaction with oxygenslow oxidation = rusting, tarnish, corrosionfast oxidation = burning, exploding, combustion
52Density The amount of matter in a given amount of space Density = mass ÷ volumeD = m/v D = ?Mass = m = 96.5 gramsVolume = v = 5 cm3D = 96.5 g / 5 cm3 = 19.3 g/cm319.3 g/cm3 is the density of goldThe density of water = 1.0 g/mLDensity
53BUOYANCEThe ability of a fluid (liquid or gas) to exert an upward force on an object immersed in it.If buoyant force = object’s weightthe object will float
54GAS LAWS Boyle’s Law: pressure and volume Volume decreases as Pressure increasesPressure decreases as Volume increases
55Gas Laws Charles’s Law: temperature & volume Volume increases as Temperature increasesVolume decreases as Temperature decreases