The physical material of the universe which we are studying. Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Amount of matter in an object. Measure of Earth’s gravitational pull on matter.
States of Matter Solid -incompressible, definite volume and shape. Liquid -incompressible, definite volume, but no definite shape. Gas -compressible, no definite volume or shape. Plasma -high temperature state of matter in which atoms lose their electrons (found in fluorescent lighting, fire, and stars).
-Depend on the amount of matter present. -Include volume, mass, amount of energy, etc. -Do not depend on the amount of matter present. -Include melting point, boiling point, density, and the ability to conduct electricity and heat.
-characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance itself. -ex: melting point, boiling point, color, taste, odor, density, etc.
-reactivity -ex: flammability, ability to rust, corrosiveness, etc.
-change in physical appearance -ex: dissolving, grinding, cutting, melting, boiling, etc.
WHEN A SUBSTANCE IS TRANSFOMED INTO A CHEMICALLY DIFFERENT SUBSTANCE. Aka - chemical reactions. (ex: combustion, rusting, burning)
Indicators of a chemical reaction: 1.Energy absorbed or released (temperature changes hotter or colder) 2.Color change 3.Gas production (bubbling, fizzing, or odor change) 4.Odor change 5.formation of a precipitate- a solid that separates from solution (won’t dissolve) 6.Irreversibility- not easily reversed
Non-mixtures Matter that has a constant, invariable composition Elements and Compounds
substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means. Ex: carbon, oxygen, aluminum
Chemical combination of two or more elements Can be decomposed by chemical means into two or more elements Ex: sugar, water, NaCl
-the smallest particle that has the properties of an element
-two or more atoms combined chemically -smallest representative particle of a compound