Scientific Theories about the Solar System KFoster 20112 1.What events occurred in 530 B.C. E. that influenced Pythagoras’ belief that if the Sun and Moon are spherical then the Earth must be also? While Pythagoras was watching ships sail out to see, he observed that while ships moved further away from shore, they became smaller and smaller. Until they completely disappeared from sight. Pythagoras concluded that if the Earth was flat (as believed at that time in history) then the boat would disappear instantly. He noticed that the sun and moon are also spherical therefore, the Earth must be also. 2. What did Anaxagoras learn about the moon in 450 B.C.E.? After watching the moon, Anaxagoras concluded that the moon shone because of the reflected light from the sun. He also noticed that when the Earth moved between the sun and the moon an eclipse occurred. The curve on the moon was the Earth’s shadow so he concluded that the Earth must be curved also. 3. What did Eratosthenes learn about shadows in 225 B.C. E.? Because a stick cast a shadow at noon and not in another location, he believed that the Earth must be round. 44.4. Copernicus believed that the Earth spun around on an axis as it Rotated around the sun. The Big Bang theory has been proven to be a viable theory that after millions of years of a small piece of matter rotating, this eventually built and created out solar system today. The Hubble space telescope has factual images indicating that this theory Is true.
Mercury Venus Uranus Neptune Pluto Saturn Jupiter Mars Earth The Planets 1. open the Smartnotebook file: The Planets 2. Complete pages: 5-18 Inner Planets (solid mass) Outer Planets (gaseous mass) 1.Mercury5. Jupiter 2.Venus6. Saturn 3. Earth7. Uranus 4. Mars8. Neptune 9. Pluto 3
KFoster 20114 The sun is the centre of the solar system. Eight planets and one dwarf planet orbit the sun, and several of these have moons. Together, with asteroids and comets, these make up the solar system. Most of the solar system is empty space. More than 99% of the mass of the solar system is the sun. The planets are like tiny specks of matter, orbiting the sun. The planets spin slowly, compared to the time it takes for them to orbit the sun. The average distance from the Earth to the sun is one Astronomical Unit (AU), which is 149 597 870 km. Solar System Fill-in the blanks
Inner Planets KFoster 20115 Mercury Venus Earth Mars The Inner Planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. All four planets are very different from each other, but also have their similarities. Their main similarities are that they are all of similar size (in comparison with the sizes of the Outer Planets) and are all quite close to the Sun. All planets have a solid mass. One of their differences is their axis and rotation plus the amount of time that it takes to orbit the Sun.
Inner Planet Mercury 6KFoster 2011 DescriptionDetails Order from the sun 1 st First Average distance from the sun 58 million km (36 million miles) Length of time to revolve around the sun once. 88 days Type of planet (rocky/gaseous) rocky Tilt of the axis 0.0352 degrees Direction it rotates (clockwise/counterclockwise) Counter-clockwise Surface temperature 170 To 275 degrees Composition of the atmosphere Almost no atmosphere. Hydrogen, helium, oxygen, sodium, calcium Unusual surface features Rocky & covered in craters
Inner Planet Venus 7KFoster 2011 DescriptionDetails Order from the sun 2 nd planet Average distance from the sun 41 840 000 km Length of time to revolve around the sun once. 7.5 months Type of planet (rocky/gaseous) Rocky Tilt of the axis 177.4 Direction it rotates (clockwise/counterclockwise) Clockwise Surface temperature 900 to 482.2 degrees Fahrenheit Composition of the atmosphere Clouds of sulfuric acid & carbon dioxide Unusual surface features Rocky, dusty, waterless
Inner Planet Venus 8KFoster 2011 DescriptionDetails Order from the sun 3 rd Average distance from the sun 93 million miles Length of time to revolve around the sun once. 365 days Type of planet (rocky/gaseous) Rocky Tilt of the axis 23.45 degrees Direction it rotates (clockwise/counterclockwise) Counter-clockwise Surface temperature 69 to 58 degrees Fahrenheit Composition of the atmosphere Nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, hydrogen methane Unusual surface features Mostly water Inner Planet Earth
Inner Planet Venus 9KFoster 2011 DescriptionDetails Order from the sun 4 th Average distance from the sun 141 000 000 Length of time to revolve around the sun once. 687 days Type of planet (rocky/gaseous) Rocky Tilt of the axis 25.19 degrees Direction it rotates (clockwise/counterclockwise) Counter-clockwise Surface temperature 20 to 140 degrees Fahrenheit Composition of the atmosphere Mainly carbon dioxide Unusual surface features Two polar ice caps covered in reddish dust. Hard rocky surface Inner Planet EarthInner Planet Mars
KFoster 201110 1. Label the planets above according to their position from the sun. 2. Describe the surface of Mercury. The surface is rocky and covered in craters. 3. Is Mercury the hottest planet in our solar system? If not, explain which planet is the hottest, and why. No. Venus is the hottest planet in the solar system. Venus' atmosphere traps the heat, making it the hottest even though it isn't the closest. 4. What unique feature does the third planet from the sun have that no other known planet has? Earth has water, which supports life. 5.Describe two interesting features of Mars. named by the Romans for their god of war has red tinge because of red coloured rocks and soil has huge volcanoes and deep valleys atmosphere has huge dust storms has two moons: Phobos and Deimos
Outer Planets KFoster 201111 The Outer Planets are Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. These planets are much larger than the inner planets; collectively, they make up 99% of the mass known to orbit the Sun. All four outer planets have rings, though only Saturn's ring system is easily observed from Earth. These planets are composed of gases. Their orbit time around the Sun and their axis are all different.
KFoster 201112 Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and is the largest one in the solar system. If Jupiter were hollow, more than one thousand Earths could fit inside. Jupiter has features very different from terrestrial planets. Its composition is more like that of stars, and if it has any solid surface it is hidden deep at its centre. Jupiter is apparently almost entirely gas and liquid. It is composed largely of hydrogen and helium. Jupiter's strong internal heat creates a number of semi- permanent features in its atmosphere, such as cloud bands and the Great Red Spot. Jupiter has sixty-three known satellites. The four largest, Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa, show similarities to the terrestrial planets, such as volcanism and internal heating. Ganymede, the largest satellite in the Solar System, is larger than Mercury. Jupiter Fill-in the blank
13KFoster 2011 DescriptionDetails Order from the sun 6th Average distance from the sun 1 783 000 000 Length of time to revolve around the sun once. 29.5 earth years Type of planet (rocky/gaseous) gaseous Tilt of the axis 26.73 degrees Direction it rotates (clockwise/counterclockwise) clockwise Surface temperature 128 degrees Celsius Composition of the atmosphere Hydrogen & helium. Unusual surface features Gases form cloud layers which we see as rings. Rings made of ice particles Outer Planet Saturn
14 It is the seventh planet from the sun. It is the third largest - almost four times the size of Earth. It takes 84 years to orbit the sun once. It is a gas planet, made up of primarily ices and gases. Uranus' axis is tilted at 95 0. It has a layer of rings, and has 27 satellites.
15KFoster 2011 DescriptionDetails Order from the sun 8th Average distance from the sun 165 years Length of time to revolve around the sun once. 4 500 million km Type of planet (rocky/gaseous) Gaseous Tilt of the axis 28.32 degrees Direction it rotates (clockwise/counterclockwise) Clockwise Surface temperature −218 °C°C Composition of the atmosphere Hydrogen.,Helium, methane 2000 km/hour winds Unusual surface features12 moons, faint & fragmented ring system Outr Planet SaturnOuter Planet Neptune
KFoster 201116 Pluto, formally designated (134340) Pluto, is the second-largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System (after Eris) and the tenth-largest body observed directly orbiting the Sun. Originally classified as a planet, Pluto is now considered the largest member of a distinct region called the Kuiper belt. Like other members of the Kuiper belt, Pluto is composed primarily of rock and ice and is relatively small: approximately a fifth the mass of the Earth's moon and a third its volume. It has a highly eccentric and highly inclined orbit. Pluto's eccentricity takes it from 30 to 49 AU (4.4–7.4 billion km) from the Sun, causing Pluto to occasionally come closer to the Sun than Neptune. Pluto and its largest moon, Charon, are often treated together as a binary system because the barycentre of their orbits does not lie within either body. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) has yet to formalise a definition for binary dwarf planets, and until it passes such a ruling, Charon is classified as a moon of Pluto. Pluto has two known smaller moons, Nix and Hydra, discovered in 2005. From its discovery in 1930 until 2006, Pluto was counted as the Solar System's ninth planet. In the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries, however, many objects similar to Pluto were discovered in the outer solar system, notably the scattered disc object Eris, which is 27% more massive than Pluto. On August 24, 2006 the IAU defined the term "planet" for the first time. This definition excluded Pluto, which the IAU reclassified as a member of the new category of dwarf planets along with Eris and Ceres. After the reclassification, Pluto was added to the list of minor planets and given the number 134340. A number of scientists continue to suggest that Pluto should be reclassified as a planet.
KFoster 201118 It has bands of atmosphere, and a Great Red Spot. It has 7 flat rings around it. Uranus' axis is tilted at 95 0, so it looks like it is tilted on its side. Neptune's surface is made of frozen gas. Pluto has an elliptical orbit, which at times takes it closer to the sun than Neptune. Yes it should. It is too small to be classified as a planet. If it were left as a planet, then we would have to reclassify a lot of other bodies as planets too, and there would be too many.
Scale Model of the planets *Open the Smartnotebook file: Scale Model of the planets. * Complete pages 19- 22 *Define Scale Model here: 19KFoster 2011 A Scale Model is a representation or copy of an object that is larger or smaller than the actual size of the object. Most often the scale model is a scaled down model of their full-size versions. The scale model attempts to replicate the full-size version in as many aspects as possible.
What is an astronomical unit? 1 AU is the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun, 149,597,870.691 km. which is about 93,000,000 miles. It is used to indicate distances within a solar system. The Earth orbits at a distance of 1 AU from the Sun. How do you calculate an AU? Earth is 1 AU from the Sun AUs (astronomical units) is a measure of distance based on the average distance from the Sun which the Earth orbits. It is set at 149,597,870,691 ± 30 metres. (About 93 million miles). Scale Model 20
PlanetsNumber of MilesAU Mercury 36 000 000.39 AU Venus 67 000 000.723 AU Earth 93 000 0001 AU Mars 141 000 0001.524 AU Jupiter 484 000 0005.2 AU Saturn 887 000 0009.54 AU Uranus 1 783 000 00019.2 AU Neptune 2 796 000 00030 AU Pluto 4 400 000 00030 to 49 AUAU Distance and Scale * complete the following charts by referring to the previous charts and the Smartnotebook file: Scale Model of the Planets. * make note if it is in kilometres or miles 21 4.488 billion 0.058 billion.150 billion.228 billion 108 000 000 km 778 000 000 km 1 424 000 000 km 5 910 000 000 km