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Natural Gas – Hydrogen / Methane blends for internal combustion engines (ICE) in road vehicles. Safety and Regulations Workshop “Overcoming Barriers For.

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Presentation on theme: "Natural Gas – Hydrogen / Methane blends for internal combustion engines (ICE) in road vehicles. Safety and Regulations Workshop “Overcoming Barriers For."— Presentation transcript:

1 Natural Gas – Hydrogen / Methane blends for internal combustion engines (ICE) in road vehicles. Safety and Regulations Workshop “Overcoming Barriers For Hythane” 19th June 2006, Stuttgart (D) Ing. Aldo Bassi e Ing. Daniele Mizza

2 2 19th June 2006 SUMMARY 1.Performances and some technical aspects of CH4/H2 blends combustion in ICE 2.Safety aspects and reliability analysis 3.Standards and Regulations – work in progress 4.Conclusions

3 MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF FUELS: GASOLINE, LPG, METHANE, HYDROGEN GASOLINE LPG (propane-buthane) METHANEHYDROGEN Heat power inf. [MJ/Kg] 44,4 46  45, Octane number RON 90  Ratio C/H 0,54 0,38  0,4 0,250 Specific energy fuel air [MJ/m 3 ] 3,653,483,182,97 Combustion speed [cm/sec] 23    400 Limite inferiore infiammabile a pressione ambiente 1,0 % vol. 2,1  1,5 % vol. 5,0 % vol.4,1 % vol. Limite superiore infiammabile a pressione ambiente 7,6 % vol. 9,5  8,5 % vol. 15 % vol.72,5 % vol. Vapour density d 1 bar [Kg/m 3 ] 4,75 1,83  2,42 0,670,08989 Vapour density/air [Kg/m 3 ] 3,9 1,5  2,0 0,560,070 Liquid density [Kg/m 3 ] 740 Kg/m 3 [15°C] 585  573 Kg/m 3 [15°C] 423 Kg/m 3 (-161°C) 70 Kg/m 3 (-252°C) Self ignition temperature 320 °C465 °C540 °C560 °C Boiling Point (°C) 1 bar 125 °C- 42 °C ; - 1 °C- 161 °C- 252 °C Vapour pressure REID (100 °F) 0,25  0,45 bar (abs) 10,0  2,5 bar (abs) Propane - Buthane -- 19th June

4 4 METHANE/HYDROGEN FEEDING SYSTEM OF INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Cylinder --- liters ECU Cylinder --- liters CYLINDER SAFETY MULTIVALVES ELETTROVALVE PRESSURE REGULATOR GAS INJECTORS INLET MANIFOLD EXHAUST MANIFOLD CATALYTIC CONVERTER SENSORS ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT ENGINE SPARK PLUGS

5 5 19th June 2006 POWER TRAIN EFFICIENCY (FUEL CELL & ICE) ICE

6 6 19th June 2006 SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF H 2 IN RESPECT OF THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Wide ignition range (with air) generates unwanted mixture ignitions Low ignition energy generates unwanted mixture ignitions High self-ignition temperature means high octane number (> 130) High flame speed means high combustion temperature i.e. high NOx emissions Low mixture H 2 /air density means low engine specific power Low H 2 density make critical all the seals of engine High burn rates mean high heat losses

7 7 19th June 2006 Effect on the stored amount of energy on board of a natural gas vehicle, as a function of hydrogen content in the natural gas, with gas blend stored at 20 Mpa and 288K.

8 8 19th June 2006 LITERATURE DATA ABOUT EMISSIONS AND PERFORMANCES OF ICE H 2 /CNG FUELLED 20 – 30% H2/CNG optimal mixture for performances and emissions. ON THE TEST BED: –Energy consumption same as full CNG –NO X reduction of -50% –NMHC reduction of -58% –CO reduction of -9% –CO2 reduction ~ 25% IN SERVICE –Energy consumption +12% –NO X reduction of -55%

9 9 19th June 2006 Standards and Regulation Work in progress International Standards in ISO Regulations & Procedures in Italy Regulation UN-ECE / UN-GTR Homologation procedures as single sample (I) Risk analysis (RAMS) Homologation tests

10 10 19th June o ECE-Rxx : Liquid H 2 System & Components o ECE-Ryy : Compressed H 2 System & Components o ECE-Rzz: Fuel Cells ISO International Organization Standardization TC58 Gas cylinders WG1 Liquid fuel tanks WG5 Gas Filling connectors WG11 Service Stations TC197 Hydrogen technologies WG6 Gaseous fuel tanks WG8 Electrolysis processes WG9 Fuel processing tech. WG10 Metal Hydrides TC22 Road Vehicles TC22/SC25 Road vehicles using LPG, CNG, H 2 TC22/SC21 Electric road vehicles – fuel cells. WG1 Refuelling connector WG2 Design principles and installation of vehicle fuel system. WG3 Fuel system components. WG11 LPG Road Vehicles Containers European and International Gaseous Fuel Vehicles Standard Development UN / ECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe WP.29 Inland Transport Committee GRPE Working Party on Pollution and Energy Ad Hoc Group H 2 and Fuel Cell GRPE Global Technical Regulations (GTR) WG12 Product Specifications

11 11 ISO TCs DEVELOPING H 2 VEHICLES STANDARDS TC 197 “Hydrogen Technologies” - WG 1 Liquid hydrogen - Land vehicles fuel tanks - WG 5 Gaseous hydrogen - Land vehicle filling connectors - WG 6 Gaseous hydrogen and hydrogen blends - Land vehicle fuel tanks - WG 8 Hydrogen generators using water electrolysis process - WG 9 Hydrogen generators using fuel processing technologies - WG 10 Transportable gas storage devices - Hydrogen absorbed in reversible metal hydride - WG 11 Gaseous hydrogen - Service stations - WG 12 Hydrogen fuel - Product specification TC 22/SC25 “Vehicles using gaseous fuels (CNG, LPG, H2)” – ITALIAN CHAIRMANSHIP - WG 1 Compressed natural gas refuelling connector - WG 2 Design principles and installation of vehicle fuel systems - WG 3 NGV fuel system components TC 22/SC21 “Electrically propelled road vehicles” - WG 1 Vehicle operation conditions, vehicle safety and energy storage installation - WG 2 Definitions and methods of measurement of vehicle performance and of energy consumption TC 58 “Gas cylinders” - WG 7 Compatibility between gases and materials 19th June 2006

12 STANDARD ISO CONCERNING HYDROGEN VEHICLES ISO/TR 15916Basic considerations for the safety of hydrogen systems(TC 197) ISO/DIS Liquid hydrogen land vehicle fuel tanks(TC 197) ISO/DIS 17268Filling connectors (250, 350, 500, 700 bar)(TC 197) ISO/DIS 13984:1999Liquid H 2 Land vehicle fuelling system interface(TC197) ISO/WD xxxx.1Road vehicles — Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen (CGH2) and Hydrogen Blends fuel system components Part 1: General requirements and definitions(TC 22/SC25) ISO/WD xxxx.2 Road vehicles — Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen (CGH2) and Hydrogen Blends fuel system components Part 2: Performance and general test methods(TC 22/SC25) ISO/WD xxxx.3Road vehicles — Compressed Gaseous Hydrogen (CGH2) and Hydrogen Blends fuel system components Part 3: Pressure regulator(TC 22/SC25) ISO/CD 15869Gaseous H 2 e H 2 blends land vehicle fuel tank(TC ) 12

13 13 STANDARD ISO CONCERNING HYDROGEN VEHICLES cont’ ISO :2006Fuel cell road vehicles -- Safety specifications Part 1: Vehicle functional safety(TC 22/SC21) ISO/FDIS Fuel cell road vehicles -- Safety specifications Part 2: Protection against hydrogen hazards for vehicles fuelled with compressed hydrogen (TC 22/SC21) ISO/DIS Fuel cell road vehicles -- Safety specifications Part 3: Protection of persons against electric shock (TC 22/SC21) ISO/CD Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Road Vehicles Energy consumption measurement Part 1: Using compressed hydrogen (TC 22/SC21) ISO/WD Pure Fuel Road Vehicles Energy consumption measurement Part 1: Using compressed hydrogen (TC 22/SC21) 19th June 2006

14 14 HYDROGEN VEHICLES REGULATIONS ACTIVITY Mirror Committee H 2 Italy: CTI – Comitato Termotecnico Italiano CUNA – Commissione Tecnica di unificazione dell’Autoveicolo CEI – Comitato Elettrotecnico Italiano National and international Regulations comparison (ISO, CEN, GRPE, PLATFORM H 2...) CUNA GL5 “Gaseous fuel engines and their systems” Italian organization for regulations in the automotive field 19th June 2006

15 15 INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROGEN FUELLED VEHICLES TYPE APPROVAL REGULATIONS. 19th June 2006 WP29/AC3 PROJECT MANAGER GTR-HFCV Mr. Albus SWG Safety H 2 storage, vehicle crash electric safety SWG Environment emissions H 2 consumption GRP E SGE (Perujo del JRC-ISPRA) SGS (da definire) Decision for cooperation between TC197 and TC22 was already taken on EIHP2 Partnership EIHP is a partnership between the European Hydrogen Industry and the European Commission. This consortium was created to provide inputs for regulatory activities on a European and global level to facilitate harmonized Procedures for the approval of hydrogen fuelled road vehicles ISO TC22 SC21 Electric, Hybrid, FC Vehicles ISO TC22 SC25 LPG, CNG, H2 Road Vehicles ISO TC197 Hydrogen Technologies H2 Industry mobile voice and stationary ISO H2 Voice GRS P

16 16 SPECIFIC REGULATIONS FOR HYDROGEN FUELLED VEHICLES TYPE APPROVAL ECE-ONU R xxx (GRPE/2003/14-7/03/03)Proposal: Specific components for motor vehicles using liquid hydrogen. Vehicles with regard to the installation of specific component ECE-ONU R yyy (GRPE/Informal doc) Proposal:Specific components for motor vehicles using compressed gaseous hydrogen. Vehicles with regard to the installation of specific component ECE-ONU R zzz (Draft regulation)Specific components of fuel cell for vehicles propulsion system Vehicles with regard to the installation of fuel cell … ECE-ONU R 83 (draft amendment)Proposal:for introducing H 2 as propulsion fuel (exhaust emission measurements & certification tests) ECE-ONU R 85 (draft amendment)Proposal:for introducing H 2 as propulsion fuel (power output measurements & certification tests) ECE-ONU R 101 (draft amendment)Proposal:for introducing H 2 as propulsion fuel (fuel consumption and CO 2 emission measurements & certification tests) ECE-ONU R 100 (approved 12/02/97)Approval of battery electric vehicles with regard to specific requirements for construction and functional safety Nota: In the Regulation R 83, R 85, R 101 specific amendments are also proposed for introducing hybrid propulsion system certification test. 19th June 2006

17 17 HOMOLOGATION PROCEDURES FOR A VEHICLE SINGLE SAMPLE (ITALY) 19th June 2006 Risk Analysis (RAMS) Technical Report “Nulla Osta” Car Maker Tests required by Car Maker Homologation Request (Ministero dei Trasporti - Italy) Lab and Road Tests Type approval & Plate ID. Plate

18 19th June RAMS Reliability, Availability, Maintenance and Safety Functional Diagrams of the system and subsystems Data sheets components Mission profile Risk analysis FMECA / FTA Maintenance (Preventive & In-repair) Critical components (Minimal Cut Sets) Operability analisys

19 19th June SAFETY ASPECTS OF H 2 VEHICLES 1.On board H2 system: Leakages measurements and safety valves On board H2 gas deposits prevention H2 purges control In fire behaviour – Safety valves – Bonfire 2.Safety in crash (front, rear, lateral): Leakages control after crash Cut-Off valves for cylinders Components & cylinders fitting Accelerations calculation


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