Presentation on theme: "13.5 Cycling of Matter Energy flows from the sun to the earth and back out again into space creating an open system for earth Matter on the other hand."— Presentation transcript:
13.5 Cycling of Matter Energy flows from the sun to the earth and back out again into space creating an open system for earth Matter on the other hand on earth is a closed system? –Why? Hint: Law of Conservation of matter –Give an example or two! Oxygen Carbon Water Nitrogen –What 4 elements make up 96% of the human body? COHN
13.5 Cycling of Matter KEY CONCEPT Matter cycles in and out of an ecosystem.
13.5 Cycling of Matter Water cycles through the environment. The hydrologic, or water, cycle is the circular pathway of water on Earth. Organisms all have bodies made mostly of water.
13.5 Cycling of Matter About 326 million trillion gallons of water on earth. If all that water could fit in a 1 gallon container just 3 teaspoons would represent all the available water for life –Rest salty and locked in ice
13.5 Cycling of Matter Elements essential for life also cycle through ecosystems. A biogeochemical cycle is the movement of a particular chemical through the biological and geological parts of an ecosystem. The main processes involved in the oxygen cycle are photosynthesis and respiration.
13.5 Cycling of Matter Oxygen cycles indirectly through an ecosystem by the cycling of other nutrients. Ex. Break down of limestone by acid rain oxygen respiration carbon dioxide photosynthesis
13.5 Cycling of Matter Carbon is the building block of life. –The carbon cycle moves carbon from the atmosphere, through the food web, and returns to the atmosphere. –Carbon is emitted by the burning of fossil fuels. –Other sources include rocks (limestone), bicarbonate, CO2 in air, Dead stuff –Some carbon is stored for long periods of time in areas called carbon sinks. Ex Trees
13.5 Cycling of Matter nitrogen in atmosphere animals denitrifying bacteria nitrifying bacteria nitrifying bacteria ammonium ammonification decomposers plant nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil nitrogen-fixing bacteria in roots nitrates nitrites The nitrogen cycle mostly takes place underground. –Some bacteria convert gaseous nitrogen into ammonia through a process called nitrogen fixation. –Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria live in nodules on the roots of plants; others live freely in the soil.
13.5 Cycling of Matter –Ammonia released into the soil is transformed into ammonium. nitrogen in atmosphere animals denitrifying bacteria nitrifying bacteria nitrifying bacteria ammonium ammonification decomposers plant nitrogen-fixing bacteria in soil nitrogen-fixing bacteria in roots nitrates nitrites –Nitrifying bacteria change the ammonium into nitrate. –Nitrogen moves through the food web and returns to the soil during decomposition.
13.5 Cycling of Matter geologic uplifting rain weathering of phosphate from rocks runoff sedimentation forms new rocks leaching phosphate in solution animals plants decomposers phosphate in soil The phosphorus cycle takes place at and below ground level. –Phosphate is released by the weathering of rocks. –Phosphorus moves through the food web and returns to the soil during decomposition. – Phosphorus leaches into groundwater from the soil and is locked in sediments. – Both mining and agriculture add phosphorus into the environment.