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Biogeochemical Cycles Section 22-2 Pages 420-423.

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Presentation on theme: "Biogeochemical Cycles Section 22-2 Pages 420-423."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biogeochemical Cycles Section 22-2 Pages

2 essential elements describe the flow of essential elements from the environment through living organisms and back into the environment. Biogeochemical Cycles

3 Hydrological Cycle

4 Hydrological Cycle Hydrological Cycle (water cycle) 1. Reservoir – oceans, air (as water vapor), groundwater, lakes and glaciers; evaporation, wind and precipitation (rain) move water from oceans to land 2. Assimilation – plants absorb water from the ground, animals drink water or eat other organisms which are composed mostly of water 3. Release – plants transpire, animals breathe and expel liquid wastes

5 Hydrological Cycle 1. Reservoir – oceans, air (as water vapor), groundwater, lakes and glaciers; evaporation, wind and precipitation (rain) move water from oceans to land. 2. Assimilation – plants absorb water from the ground, animals drink water or eat other organisms which are composed mostly of water. 3. Release – plants transpire, animals breathe and expel liquid wastes.

6 Carbon Cycle

7 Carbon Cycle Carbon Cycle (carbon is required for building organic compounds) 1. Reservoir – atmosphere (as CO 2 ), fossil fuels (oil, coal), durable organic materials (for example: cellulose). 2. Assimilation – plants use CO 2 in photosynthesis; animals consume plants. 3. Release – plants and animals release CO 2 through respiration and decomposition; CO 2 is released as wood and fossil fuels are burned.

8

9 Carbon Cycle 1. Reservoir – atmosphere (as CO 2 ), fossil fuels (oil, coal), durable organic materials (for example: cellulose). 2. Assimilation – plants use CO 2 in photosynthesis; animals consume plants. 3. Release – plants and animals release CO 2 through respiration and decomposition; CO 2 is released as wood and fossil fuels are burned.

10 Nitrogen Cycle

11 Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Cycle (Nitrogen is required for the manufacture of amino acids and nucleic acids) 1. Reservoir – atmosphere (as N 2 ); soil (as NH 4 + or ammonium, NH 3 or ammonia, N0 2 - or nitrite, N0 3 - or nitrate

12 2. Assimilation – plants absorb nitrogen as either NH 4 + or as N0 3 -, animals obtain nitrogen by eating plants and other animals. The stages in the assimilation of nitrogen are as follows: Nitrogen Fixation: N 2 to NH 4 + by nitrogen-fixing bacteria (prokaryotes in the soil and root nodules), N 2 to N0 3 - by lightning and UV radiation. Nitrification: NH 4 + to N0 2 - and N0 2 - to N0 3 - by various nitrifying bacteria. Nitrogen Cycle

13 3. Release – Denitrifying bacteria convert N0 3 - back to N 2 (denitrification); detrivorous bacteria convert organic compounds back to NH 4 + (ammonification); animals excrete NH 4 + (or NH 3 ) urea, or uric acid. Nitrogen Cycle

14 1. Reservoir – atmosphere (as N 2 ); soil (as NH 4 + or ammonium, NH 3 or ammonia, N0 2 - or nitrite, N0 3 - or nitrate 2. Assimilation – plants absorb nitrogen as either NH 4 + or as N0 3 -, animals obtain nitrogen by eating plants and other animals. 3. Release – Denitrifying bacteria convert N0 3 - back to N 2 ; detrivorous bacteria convert organic compounds back to NH 4 + ; animals excrete NH 4 +, urea, or uric acid.

15 Phosphorus Cycle

16 Phosphorus Cycle Phosphorus Cycle (Phosphorus is required for the manufacture of ATP and all nucleic acids) 1. Reservoir – erosion transfers phosphorus to water and soil; sediments and rocks that accumulate on ocean floors return to the surface as a result of uplifting by geological processes 2. Assimilation – plants absorb inorganic PO 4 3- (phosphate) from soils; animals obtain organic phosphorus when they plants and other animals 3. Release – plants and animals release phosphorus when they decompose; animals excrete phosphorus in their waste products

17 Phosphorus Cycle 1.Reservoir – erosion transfers phosphorus to water and soil; sediments and rocks that accumulate on ocean floors return to the surface as a result of uplifting by geological processes 2.Assimilation – plants absorb inorganic PO 4 3- (phosphate) from soils; animals obtain organic phosphorus when they plants and other animals 3.Release – plants and animals release phosphorus when they decompose; animals excrete phosphorus in their waste products

18 Biogeochemical cycles of other minerals, such as calcium and magnesium, are similar to the phosphorus cycle.


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