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Reducing indoor air pollutants and toxic chemicals in hospitals - The contribution of hospital flooring - Martin Duske Manager Market Segment Health Care.

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Presentation on theme: "Reducing indoor air pollutants and toxic chemicals in hospitals - The contribution of hospital flooring - Martin Duske Manager Market Segment Health Care."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reducing indoor air pollutants and toxic chemicals in hospitals - The contribution of hospital flooring - Martin Duske Manager Market Segment Health Care and Sustainability, Europe nora Systems GmbH, Weinheim, Germany Contact: London, September 11, 2013

2 Study on Healthy and Sustainable Flooring by Health Care Without Harm

3 “The ideal resilient flooring is non-toxic throughout its life cycle, practical (hygienic and easy to clean), durable, safe, silent underfoot, visually pleasant and cost- effective.”

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5 Practical experience Hazardous and toxic chemicals Indoor air pollution Underfoot comfort Installation problems Expensive and difficult cleaning Life Cycle Costs “The cheapest product turns out to be the most expensive option over life time”

6 Topics of this presentation Avoiding toxic chemicals and emissions – Criteria – Certification systems and eco labels – Alternative options Products’ surfaces and their impact on cleaning and maintenance – Systems available – Cleaning and maintenance impacts – A chemical – free cleaning and maintenance option

7 Avoiding Toxic Chemicals and Emissions Consider the overall environmental impact of manufacture, use and disposal, including any use of toxic chemicals Eliminate materials that use, emit or lead to production of hazardous chemicals

8 1. Avoiding Toxic Chemicals and Emissions

9 Avoiding hazardous chemicals during lifetime Avoid materials known or suspected to contain carcinogens, mutagens, reproductive or developmental toxicants (CMR’s), endocrine disruptors

10 Avoiding hazardous chemicals during lifetime Avoid any material emitting volatile or semi-volatile organic compounds (VOC’s, SVOC’s), e.g. Examples: VOC’s Formaldehyde, solvents e.g. benzene, toluene, xylene, emitting fast in the first days SVOC’s: phtalates and halogenated flame retardants, can attach to dust particles and emit slowly over the time

11 EPD’s to give detailed documentation

12 US Group Kaiser Permanente Replacing PVC by rubber

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14 Eco certification of flooring BREEAM, BRE Class A+only Formaldehyde, no other criteria Greenguard children andVOC’s, Ammonia, etc. School(California 1350) M1 Finlandammonia, aldehydes and smell French emission labelVOC’s, Formaldehyde

15 Eco certification of flooring

16 Blue Angel Germany – RAL UZ 120 Criteria for resilient flooring: Lowest levels of TVOCs and VOCs Confirmed absence of carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic substances as to EU regulations Additional limits for other relevant substances to highest requirements (e.g. LCI list) Absence of halogens and phthalates of any kind! No PVC floors possible with Blue Angel label!

17 17 Testing Standards

18 Chamber Test

19 … but chamber tests alone are very theoretical, aspects of practical use are not sufficiently considered!

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21 21 Additional criteria: The installed floor Working Group in Finland (University of Kuopio 2007) finds out: – Emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and ammonia measured from six PVC materials and four adhesives in the laboratory were compared to the emission rates measured on site from complete structures. Significant higher specific emission rates (SER’s) were generally measured from the complete structures than from individual materials….The contribution from adhesives used in the installation was clear.

22 22 Additional criteria: the installed floor Working Group in Finland (University of Kuopio 2007) “The testing of complete structures would also in general provide a better approach to evaluate the actual emissions from the combined materials.”

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25 Summary: Avoiding Toxic Chemicals Ecolabels can help to prove criteria of safety and sustainability The most relevant labels should be chosen, the German Blue Angel offers the most complete criteria However, Ecolabels are based upon lab tests only, practical experience is lacking Package testing and certification is recommended to evaluate the actual emissions of the combined materials

26 2. Products’ surfaces and their impact on cleaning and maintenance

27 Cleaning & Maintenance Source: Dr. Jürgen Schmiegel, Piepenbrock (Facility Management Company /Germany); April 2011 Rubber surface, 1:500 Linoleum surface 1:500 PVC surface 1:500

28 “Permanent” surface protections

29 Typical damages Surface protections cracking or worn off ….

30 Traditional floorings require stripping and coating Stripping and coating means using highly alkaline chemicals to remove old coatings and to apply a new layer of coating afterwards. This process is repeated regularly and requires - interruption of use of the rooms for at least 24 hours - aggressive chemicals that cause disposal problems - high cleaning and maintenance budgets

31 New comparative flooring study Study: Investigation on Material and Bacteriological Characteristics of Resilient Flooring Materials Period: – Prof. Dr. Kurt Schilcher et al. Report: DI (FH) Markus Hochleitner

32 New comparative flooring study Target: Evaluation of cleaning characteristics Testing of stability of surface protection and other product characteristics Testing of bacteriological behaviour

33 New comparative flooring study Methods: Manual mopping with neutral cleaner Machine cleaning with neutral cleaner Machine cleaning with diamond pads (without chemicals, only water)

34 New comparative flooring study Testing different types of flooring with different cleaning methods over 6 months: -PVC with PU coating -Linoleum with surface finish -Rubber floors without protection

35 Thickness of protective layers after 5 months: all coatings have disappeared PVC 1Lino 1 Lino 2 PVC 2 Type of coating none surface finish Area 1: manual cleaning w. chem. Area 2: machine cleaning w. chem. Area 3: nora pads w/o chem. Development of thickness of protections

36 Bacteriological Tests PVC 1 noraplan norament Lino 1 Lino 2PVC 2 PVC 1noraplannoramentLino 1Lino 2PVC 2 Escherichia Coli BacteriaStaphylococcus Aureus Recovery rates after cleaning obtained by set-off tests: no significant differences between flooring and cleaning methods

37 Teachings from this study Surface protections have a very short life time on floors in a hospital environment. Life time shortens even more if machine cleaning is applied Surface protections and finishes are not suitable for diamond pad cleaning Once a protection or finish has been worn off, protective measures are required to obtain satisfactory cleaning results. Especially Linoleum floors need such protection to avoid subsequent deterioration The uncoated surfaces of the tested rubber floors show excellent cleaning behavior under all tested cleaning methods Bacteriological investigations show especially that the chemical free cleaning method with diamond pads on rubber floors is at least as suitable as other methods where chemicals are used As to cleaning results the diamond pad cleaning system gives high satisfaction and also options to obtain glossy or mat surfaces

38 Diamond Pad Cleaning in LNK Linz Since May 2013 this hospital is maintaining the new rubber floors nearly without chemicals!

39 Diamond pad cleaning (nora pads) A chemical free cleaning method that requires only water Suitable for all cleaning machines Can be combined with manual mopping and disinfection methods Developed originally for ceramic floor and specifically adapted for nora rubber floors (not suitable on coated or porous floor surfaces)

40 Cleaning a 12 year old rubber floor – only with water This floor was never stripped before

41 Rehazentrum Judenburg Straßengel, Austria noraplan plus 8 years old, surface before cleaning noraplan plus 8 years old, surface after cleaning

42 Rehazentrum Judenburg Straßengel Buffing with nora Pad 1

43 LKH Judenburg Without chemicals

44 LKH Judenburg Mat without chemicals

45 83 Long-term effect of diamond pad cleaning on rubber floors Long term test Without Pad High spot Low spot Medium value before the test

46 84 Long-term effect of diamond pad cleaning on rubber floors After the test: reduction of roughness After 10 years simulation (3600 cycles)

47 Environmental Impact of Diamond Pads Diamond Pads Damage assessment including machines

48 Environmental Impact of Diamond Pads Diamond Pads Damage assessment of consumables only

49 Summary: Cleaning and Maintenance Most resilient floors on the market come with a factory-applied protective layer of PU or other and / or require regular renewal of this layer Coatings of all kinds have a limited life time that depends on use, intensity of traffic and cleaning methods Uncoated materials with closed surfaces such as quality rubber floors are more easy to maintain, also with diamond pads Diamond pads do not require chemicals, just water

50 Reducing indoor air pollutants and toxic chemicals in hospitals - Summary With adequate testing and eco-labelling it is possible to obtain non-toxic flooring materials Package testing is an additional tool to avoid toxic emissions from complete structures Floor cleaning methods and renewal of coatings may imply the use of aggressive chemicals Alternatively, the closed surface of certain types of floors allows to reduce chemicals to a minimum, even with diamond pads cleaning is possible with water only


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