Presentation on theme: "Some Whigs grew more impassione d about ending slavery and more convinced that the national Whig party would never take a strong stand against it. These."— Presentation transcript:
Some Whigs grew more impassione d about ending slavery and more convinced that the national Whig party would never take a strong stand against it. These anti-slavery Whigs joined Northern Democrats and former Free Soil Party people (whose single issue was effectively defeated by Kansas-Nebraska) The Whig Party is adversely affected over the issue of slavery:
The Whigs managed to win the election of 1848 by running another nondescript military hero, Zachary Taylor However, the Whig party was on its way out due to the loss of two of its leaders: Daniel Webster & Henry Clay Webster and Clay died before the next presidential election in 1852, leaving a huge leadership void in the Whig Party In 1856, the Whigs did not even field a presidential candidate; they were finished as a national power The remaining Whig members joined the Free Soil Party and formed a new party: the Republican Party.
The Republican Party was dedicated to keeping slavery out of the territories. Midwestern merchants and farmers, Western settlers, and Eastern importers all joined the Republican Party. It was also made up of anti-slavery Whigs and Free Soilers The Republican party grew quickly in the North, where it won a majority of Congressional seats in 1854.
Another new party formed during this period: The American Party Aka the Know-Nothings because they met privately and remained secretive about their political agenda, rallied around a single issue: Hatred of foreigners The party grew quickly and dominated several state legislatures. It also spread some ugly anti-Irish, anti-German, and anti-Catholic propaganda
Violence spread to Congress over the issue of slavery.
Republican Abraham Lincoln and Democrat Stephen Douglas ran against each other for the U.S. Senate in Illinois in 1858. The debates were followed by the country because both candidates were interested in running for the Presidency in 1860. Slavery was the main issue Chart/L&D Debates
Lincoln stated:Lincoln stated: A House Divided against itself cannot stand. Either we become one or the other. Lincoln was against the expansion of slavery Douglas believed that slavery should be decided by the people. Popular sovereignty In the end, Douglas won the election. But Lincoln’s speeches & debates earned him the respect of many. They saw him as a good presidential candidate.In the end, Douglas won the election. But Lincoln’s speeches & debates earned him the respect of many. They saw him as a good presidential candidate.
The Democratic Party tried its best to keep it together. Stephen Douglas came up with the Freeport Doctrine – Slavery could be prevented from any territory by the refusal of the people living in that territory to pass laws favorable to slavery. Likewise, if the people of the territory supported slavery, legislation would provide for its continued existence. The Freeport Doctrine failed to please the whole party because any position that did not support the Dred Scott decision was opposed in the South
Election of 1860 presidential candidates: Northern Democrats supported Stephen Douglas Southern Democrats backed John Breckinridge A new party formed in the Upper South called the Constitutional Union party nominated John Bell The Republicans nominated Abraham Lincoln
Election of 1860 Immediately after the election, Southern leaders who wanted to maintain the Union tried to negotiate a compromise. Lincoln refused to soften the Republican demand that all territories be declared free He had no other political option, as to do otherwise would have been to abandon the principles of those who had supported his election
Election of 1860 The country is polarized (divided) over the issue of slavery. In December 1860, 3 months before Lincoln’s inauguration, South Carolina seceded from the Union Within months, 7 states join South Carolina to form the Confederate States of America (CSA) The states chose Jefferson Davis to lead the Confederacy 303 total electoral votes and 152 to win.
Cautiously, Lincoln decided to maintain control of federal forts in the South while waiting for the Confederacy to make a move. On April 12, 1861, the South attacked and captured Fort Sumter No one died in this first battle of America’s bloodiest war, the Civil War.
The states of the upper South provided a natural border between the two belligerents. The loyalty of each of these states represented a important milestone to both Confederacy and Union.
For many, the Civil War was not primarily about slavery. Except for active abolitionists, most Northerners believed they were fighting to preserve the Union Most Southerners felt they were fighting for their states’ rights to govern themselves Many on BOTH sides thought that slavery was simply the issue that had caused the argument over states’ rights to escalate to war. Lincoln even stated: “If I could save the Union without freeing any slaves I would do it, and if I could save the Union by freeing all the slaves I would do it… What I do about slavery, and the colored race, I do because I believe it helps to save the Union.”