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Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP_MAIN Language Structure Practice Introduction Activity Main Teaching Points Practice Practice.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP_MAIN Language Structure Practice Introduction Activity Main Teaching Points Practice Practice."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP_MAIN Language Structure Practice Introduction Activity Main Teaching Points Practice Practice I Practice II Practice III Practice IV Practice V

2 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Language Structures Introduction Activity LSP1_1 A: Read the following text and try to answer the following questions: Supposing you were making a trip in the United States and wanted to go from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. If you wanted to go by plane, you would make the trip in a few hours. If you wanted to go by train, you would make the trip in two days. If you wanted to go by car, you would make the trip in a week or less. It would take much longer time if you had to walk or go on horseback.

3 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Language Structures Introduction Activity LSP1_2 a. Which way of traveling would you choose if you were making a trip in the U.S.A and wanted to go from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean? If I were making a trip from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean, I’d be traveling by air because I could save much time. b. How much time would it take if you wanted to go by plane / train / car? I think if I were to go by plane, it would take me at least 3 hours.

4 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Language Structures Introduction Activity LSP1_3 c. Would you like to go on foot / horseback? No, I wouldn’t, because that would be very tiring and time-consuming. d. What would you most likely to do if you were in the U.S.A? Well, that depends. If I were in the U.S.A, I suppose I would most probably go hunting in the Yellow Stone National Park.

5 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Language Structures Introduction Activity LSP1_3 B: What would you do / would you be doing / would you have done in the following situations? 1. If it hadn’t been for the language structure practice, _________________. 2. If I were watching TV now, _________________. 3. Supposing spacemen came to the earth, _________________. 4. _________________ unless I had been notified.

6 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Language Structures Introduction Activity LSP1_3 5. If it hadn’t been for the fog, _________________. 6. Supposing someone were in danger, _________________. 7. _________________ unless she had passed the final exams. 8. _________________ unless they stopped quarrelling.

7 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP2_1 Language Structures Main Teaching Points If you were taking a short course in computer science, you’d be learning computer programming fast. 1. related to something being done at present: Making an assumption about something being done under a condition contrary to the present fact

8 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP2_5 Lu wouldn’t sing English songs unless she had learned them properly. 2. with the connective unless: Making an assumption about a future happening under a condition contrary to the past fact Supposing the price were lowered, then Sue would certainly buy the fur coat. 3. with the connective supposing: Making an assumption about a future happening under a condition contrary to the present fact Language Structures Main Teaching Points

9 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP2_5 Bob didn’t work hard. Otherwise he wouldn’t have been sacked. 4. with the connective otherwise: Making an assumption about a past happening under a condition contrary to the past fact If it hadn’t been for the sports meeting, I would have come to the video show. 5. in the if it hadn’t been for... pattern: Making an assumption about a past happening under a condition contrary to the past fact Language Structures Main Teaching Points

10 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP3_1 ■ Practice Practice I A: What’s he doing now? Is he? Then he must be learning computer programming fast. A: B: He is. If you were taking a short course in computer science, you’d be learning computer programming fast, too. I haven’t been in touch with Tim for a long time. B: He’s taking a short course in computer science. Directions: Listen to the recording and complete the dialogues. Then make similar dialogues with your partner by using the cues.

11 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP3_2 【 Cues of Practice I 】 1. Tim is taking a short course in computer science, and he is learning computer programming fast. 2. Bill is giving a lecture on spacecraft and he is busy making preparations for it. 3. Mabel is studying Chinese Literature in Beijing University and she has been speaking putonghua since she entered the university. 4. Brian is touring Hangzhou and he is having a wonderful time. 5. Betty is attending a national conference on ELT (English Language Teaching) and she is getting a lot out of it. 6. Martin is conducting the city symphony orchestra next month and he has been rehearsing hard with the orchestra members since last month. Practice Practice I

12 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP3_3 Has she learned them properly? A: What’s Lu going to do at the party? A: B: She’s going to sing English songs. B: She wouldn’t sing them unless she had. Practice Practice II

13 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP3_4 【 Cues of Practice II 】 1. Lu has learned to sing English songs properly and she will sing them at the party. 2. Lin has got a plane ticket to Xinjiang and he is taking a trip there. 3. Zhang has written his thesis and he is prepared to defend it before the academic committee. 4. Wang has saved enough money and he is buying a fridge. 5. Fan has collected the necessary data and she is writing a research paper. 6. Qiu really knows a lot about flying saucers / UFO’s (unidentified flying objects) and he is going to speak on the subject. Practice Practice II

14 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP3_5 B:No. It’s too dear / expensive. A: Supposing the price were lowered. B: Then she’d certainly buy it. A: Will Sue buy the fur coat? Practice Practice III

15 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP3_6 【 Cues of Practice III 】 1.Sue won’t buy the fur coat because it’s too dear / expensive. 2.Lily won’t pass her exam because she hasn’t worked hard enough. 3.Zhou doesn’t know much about applied linguistics because he hasn’t taken the course. 4.I didn’t go to the farewell party for Professor Brown because I was not invited. 5.Jack won’t be competent for the job because he doesn’t know Arabic. 6.John won’t win the race because Henry is running too. Practice Practice III

16 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP3_7 A:I wonder why. Didn’t he work hard?A: B: He wouldn’t have been sacked if he’d worked hard. B: No, otherwise he wouldn’t have been sacked. Bob was sacked. Practice Practice IV

17 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul 【 Cues of Practice IV 】 LSP3_8 1. Bob was sacked because he didn’t work hard. 2. They didn’t go to the football game because it rained. 3. Sam was very angry because he was not told the truth. 4. Tom’s mother was upset because Tom failed in the entrance examination. 5. Paul was late again this morning because he didn’t have an alarm clock. 6. They punished the child again because he misbehaved. Practice Practice IV

18 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP3_7 Because I went to the sports meeting.B: A: Why didn’t you come to the video show with me? B: If it hadn’t been for the sports meeting, I would have come to the video show with you. 1. A: It’ a pity you missed it. The video show was first-rate. Practice Practice V

19 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP3_7 A:Did it take you long to cross the busy street? You were quick.A: B: No. We took the footbridge and it only took us a little while to cross the street. B: If it hadn’t been for the footbridge, it would have taken us much longer. 2. Before the footbridge was built, one might have to wait for a few minutes before one could cross the street. Practice Practice V

20 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul 【 Cues of Practice V 】 LSP3_8 1. I didn’t come to the video show with you because I went to the sports meeting. 2. I was late because there was a traffic jam on my way here. 3. I didn’t attend the symposium on teaching English as a second language because I went to a conference on English literature. 4. I didn’t go to the opera because there was a lecture on curriculum planning. 5. I didn’t attend the short course offered by Professor Thompson because it was too expensive. Practice Practice V

21 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP3_8 1. It took us only ten minutes to do the calculations because there was a computer in our office. 2. It took the surgeon only half an hour to perform the operation because he used the laser. 3. It doesn’t take Mr. Black long to dictate his letter to Peggy because he has got a dictaphone. 4. It takes us less than forty minutes to get to the university because we take the school bus. 5. It didn’t take us long to cross the street because there is a footbridge across the street. Practice Practice V

22 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogue_MAIN Dialogue I Dialogue Dialogue II Phrases, Sentences and Expressions Dialogue Comprehension Questions Conversational Tips Oral Practice Pre-reading Questions

23 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul What is China’s cultural heritage in your understanding? What are those things that are closely related to China’s cultural heritage and keep reminding you of it? Can you find any relevance from traditional things when trying to solve the problems people are facing in a modern time? If yes, say something about it. Do you think we should sacrifice the traditional things for modern ones? Why (not)? Reading 1_1 ● Dialogue I Pre-reading Questions ● ● ●

24 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading 1_1 Dialogue I Pre-reading Questions Do you think modern architecture can exist with traditional architecture in harmony? Why (not)? Have people done anything which are destroying China’s cultural heritage? Have people done anything which help save China’s cultural heritage? How can we achieve a balance between traditional architecture and modern architecture? ● ● ● ●

25 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Save Our Heritage Dialogues1_1 Dialogue I Dialogue A: B: A: B: Finally we’re back from the field trip. Yes. But our visit to that historic city could’ve been more exciting. I know. If it hadn’t been for the destruction of some of the ancient monuments, I would’ve enjoyed the trip much more. Yes. If some of the local officials had taken better care of them, I would’ve enjoyed it much more too.

26 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues1_2 Dialogue I Dialogue A: B: A: What shocked me most was the pulling down of the stately Drum Tower. We can only see it in pictures now. If it had been destroyed in a battle or in an earthquake, I would’ve felt much better. Oh, yes. How could they have had the heart to pull it down just to straighten the road for city traffic? That’s shocking! And the legendary Buddhist Temple that was built fifteen hundred years ago. There are so many beautiful tales about it. But what did we see there? Skyscrapers rising one after another.

27 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues1_3 Dialogue I Dialogue B: A: B: It’s a shame to see so many modern buildings inside the temple’s precincts. The refined elegance of the old is drowned by the crude simplicity of the new. Just impossible! It makes me sick to recall what we saw there. And what about the thousand-year-old corridor? It’s become part of a tourist hotel just for money. More than that, it’s being ravaged by kitchen smoke. Do you remember the place where we had tea? What an experience!

28 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Just disgusting, turning a tombstone of an imperial Tang court into a tea table. It I were head of the local relics administration, I would remove the management from their office. One reason that they destroy historical monuments is for money, but another is perhaps due to their ignorance of the real value of our cultural heritage. In that case, I’m really for the saying “Ignorance is sin”. While they are ruining those priceless treasures, perhaps they don’t know that they are actually committing an inexcusable crime. Dialogues1_4 Dialogue I Dialogue A: B: A: B:

29 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Fortunately there are also people who recover national treasures from piles of junk. I heard of a broken bronze vessel cast in the eleventh century B.C. which was picked out of a scrap heap. Some workers there were certainly antique-conscious. Yes, I hear people working in the Administrative Bureau of Cultural Relics have saved thousands of ancient craftworks from construction sites. But their efforts are counteracted by those of antique looters. Dialogues1_5 Dialogue I Dialogue A: B:

30 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Those people are vicious. I’ve seen a film on smugglers who tried to take antiques abroad so that they could make a fortune. They ought to be punished. Something must be done; the sooner, the better. I think they must have already been punished by the law. The new law imposes well-defined restrictions on the export of valuable antiques. Five thousand years of civilization have endowed our country with a great store of historical and cultural treasure. It’s up to every citizen to see that they are well preserved. A: B: A: Dialogues1_6 Dialogue I Dialogue

31 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul 1) What shocked me most was the pulling down of the stately Drum Tower. 2) If it had been destroyed in a battle or in an earthquake, I would’ve felt much better. 3) How could they have had the heart to pull it down just to straighten the road for city traffic? Expressing strong feelings such as great surprise and displeasure to something discussed: Tip1 Dialogue I Conversational tips To carry on conversation requires cooperation between speakers, and making active and proper response to other speakers’ contribution is important to moving ahead the conversation in a natural way.

32 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Tip2 Dialogue I Conversational tips 4) That’s shocking! 5) It’s a shame to see so many modern buildings inside the temple’s precincts. 6) Just impossible! It makes me sick to recall what we saw there. 7) What an experience! 8) Just disgusting, turning a tombstone of an imperial Tang court into a tea table. Expressing strong feelings such as great surprise and displeasure to something discussed:

33 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul The 1,000-year-old corridor had been turned into a tourist hotel for making money and was being ravaged by kitchen smoke, and the tombstone had been turned into a tea table. LSP1_1 Dialogue I Comprehension Questions A. Briefly answer the following broad questions after you read the dialogue. 1. What is the central topic A and B are talking about? A and B are talking about saving China’s cultural heritage. 2. What happened to the Drum Tower and the Buddhist Temple? The Drum Tower had been pulled down and the Buddhist Temple had been placed in such a situation as being surrounded by many modern buildings. 3. What’s the fate of the 1,000-year-old corridor and the tombstone of a member of the Tang court?

34 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul They think the management should be removed from their office and smugglers should be punished. More effective measures should be taken to protect and save our cultural heritage. LSP1_1 4. Why are some people destroying our cultural heritage according to A and B? According to A and B, some people are destroying our cultural heritage mainly because they want to make more money. And it is also because some of them are ignorant of the real value of our cultural heritage, or antique-unconscious. 5. What do A and B think that the government should do about the people who damage ancient monuments? This is an open question. 6. What is your opinion about the preservation of historical monuments? Dialogue I Comprehension Questions

35 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP1_1 B. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. Write “T” for True and “F” for False From A and B’s talk we know they had seen some destruction of some ancient monuments in their field trip. Neither A nor B had enjoyed their field trip at all. According to A, he would prefer that the Drum Tower be destroyed in a battle or in an earthquake. It is clear that A doesn’t think that modern buildings should be built inside the Buddhist Temple. B would like to remove the people in charge of the relics affairs from their office because those people are destroying our cultural heritage. F ___ T F F F Dialogue I Comprehension Questions

36 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul LSP1_1 B. Decide whether the following statements are true or false. Write “T” for True and “F” for False According to A, some antiques had been thrown into the garbage dump. B believes that some efforts made to save ancient craftworks had been counteracted by those who are destroying our cultural heritage. According to B, a new law had been enforced to prevent the export of valuable antiques. T ___ T T Dialogue I Comprehension Questions

37 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul How could they have had the heart to …: How could they have been so hard-hearted as to pull down … Dialogue_Words 1_How could they have …

38 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogue_Words 1_It makes me sick to recall It makes me sick to recall …: It makes me feel angry and disgusted to recall …

39 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogue_Words 1_What an experience What an experience! — This is an exclamation expressing the speaker’s displeasure about something.

40 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogue_Words 1_It I were head of … It I were head of the local relics administration, I would remove the management from their office. — This is an unreal conditional. The “local relics administration” means “ 当地文物主管部门 ”, and “the management” refers to the people who are in charge of the related affairs.

41 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul the Administrative Bureau of Cultural Relics: 文物管理局 Dialogue_Words 1_the Administrative Bureau of …

42 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogue_Words 1_It’s up to every citizen It’s up to every citizen to see that they are well preserved. — If you say that it is up to someone to do something, you mean that it is their responsibility to do it. “To see + that-clause” means “to make sure that” or “to take care that”.

43 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul stately: Something or someone that is stately is impressive and graceful or dignified Instead of moving at his usual stately pace, he was almost running. e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_stately

44 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul pull down: (= demolish) To pull down a building or statue means to deliberately destroy it Plans have been put forward to pull down and rebuild the area. e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_pull down

45 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul legendary: If you describe someone or something as legendary, you mean that they are very famous and that many stories are told about them A legendary sea creature having the head and upper body of a man and the tail of a fish. e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_legendary

46 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul precincts: The precincts of an institution are its buildings and land No one carrying arms is allowed within the precincts of a temple. e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_precincts

47 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul refined: If you describe a machine or a process as refined, you mean that it has been carefully developed and is therefore very efficient or elegant, pleasing and graceful in appearance or style Dialogue_words 1_refined

48 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul drown: When someone drowns or is drowned, they die because they have gone or been pushed under water and cannot breathe. And in this case, the word metaphorically means “ruin or destroy” Dialogue_words 1_drown

49 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul crude simplicity: If you describe someone as crude, you disapprove of them because they speak or behave in a rude, offensive, or unsophisticated way. The simplicity of something is the fact that it is not complicated and can be understood or done easily Dialogue_words 1_crude simplicity

50 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul ravage: A town, country, or economy that has been ravaged is one that has been damaged so much that it is almost completely destroyed For two decades the country has been ravaged by civil war and foreign intervention. e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_ravage

51 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul ignorance: Ignorance of something is lack of knowledge about it There is so much ignorance about mental illness.e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_ignorance

52 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul heritage: A country’s heritage is all the qualities, traditions, or features of life there that have continued over many years and have been passed on from one generation to another The historic building is as much part of our heritage as the paintings. e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_heritage

53 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul priceless: If you say that something is priceless, you are emphasizing that it is worth a very large amount of money, or you approve of it because it is extremely useful Dialogue_words 1_priceless

54 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul recover: If you recover something that has been lost or stolen, you find it or get it back Rescue teams recovered more bodies from the rubble. e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_recover

55 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul scrap heap: If things such as machines or weapons are thrown on the scrapheap, they are thrown away because they are no longer needed Dialogue_words 1_scrap heap

56 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul antique-conscious: An antique is an old object such as a piece of china or furniture which is valuable because of its beauty or rarity. If you are conscious of something, you think about it a lot, especially because you think it is important I’m very conscious of my weight.e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_antique- conscious

57 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul counteract: To counteract something means to reduce its effect by doing something that produces an opposite effect My husband has to take several pills to counteract high blood pressure. e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_counteract

58 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul looter: A looter is a person who steals things from shops or houses, for example during a war or riot Dialogue_words 1_looter

59 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul vicious: A vicious person or a vicious is violent and cruel He suffered a vicious attack by a gang of white youths. e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_vicious

60 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul fortune: You can refer to a large sum of money as a fortune or a small fortune to emphasize how large it is He made a small fortune in the London property boom. e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_fortune

61 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul impose: If you impose something on people, you use your authority to force them to accept it Britain was the first country to impose fines on airlines which bring passengers without proper immigration papers. e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_impose

62 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul endow: You say that someone is endowed with a particular desirable ability, characteristic, or possession when they have it by chance or by birth You are endowed with wealth, good health and a lively intellect. e.g.: Dialogue_words 1_endow

63 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Role-play1_1 Dialogue I Oral Practice Direction: Hold a forum among students and ask them to talk about the preservation or demolition of Siheyuan in Beijing (Beijing’s courtyard house). Encourage them to use expressions listed above in their discussions. Topic: Shall we preserve those traditional buildings or demolish them for long-term city planning? Pro: Some people propose that Siheyuan should be demolished so as to save space for city construction, besides they hold that the traditional buildings are too old to fit for Beijing’s image as a modernized capital.

64 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Role-play1_2 Dialogue I Oral Practice Con: Some think that Siheyuan symbolizes the traditional culture typical of Beijing, so it should be kept and well preserved. Actually in many cities there are traditional architecture of historical or cultural significance, and also more and more land are utilized to meet the needs of housing and city planning, so shall we preserve those traditional buildings or demolish them for long-term city planning? Sample

65 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul C: P: C: Role_play1_6 Long time no see, Peng Hu. How did you spend your summer vacation? Oh, I went to Beijing to see Beijing ’ s courtyard houses which are called Siheyuan. According to the natives, these traditional buildings will be demolished so as to save space for city construction. Oh, my Goodness! That ’ s shocking! How could they have the heart to demolish these traditional buildings just for the city construction! They are parts of the country ’ s cultural heritage and they should be well preserved, I think. Dialogue I Oral Practice (P — Peng Hu; C — Cui Jian)

66 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Role-play1_7 Dialogue I Oral Practice P: C: P: C: Don ’ t you think they ’ re too old to fit for Beijing ’ s image as a metropolitan city of a big country? Some people do think so, you know. Maybe. But Siheyuan symbolizes the traditional local culture typical of Beijing and Manchu nationality, and it ’ s worth our special care. That ’ s true. By the way, have you heard the latest pulling down of the stately Drum Tower? Yes, and I was shocked. It ’ s definitely incredible that these historical places should have been pulled down for the construction of skyscrapers! What a shame!

67 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Role-play1_7 Dialogue I Oral Practice P: C: P: Absolutely! It is outrageous! And more and more land is utilized to meet the needs of housing and city planning. People just do that for themselves! Seems human-beings are sometimes too greedy. Five thousand years of civilization have endowed China with a great store of historical and cultural treasure. It ’ s up to every citizen to see that they ’ re well preserved. Yeah, I quite agree with you. We should protect them rather than demolish them.

68 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogue II Phrases, sentences and expressions Dialogues2_1 Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture MildStrong Oh look! That one’s good!Just look at that! Isn’t it beautiful? Superb!amazing? Ingenious!magnificent? I think that’s quite pretty, don’t you? I do think Now that’sabsolutely brilliant! quite nice,superbly clever!

69 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues2_2 Dialogue II Phrases, sentences and expressions Admiration for things you see, e.g., viewing a piece of modern sculpture MildStrong That’s rather a clever idea, nicely done,isn’t it? I’ve neverseensuch a gorgeous piece of art! encountered Mm... I like that. I think it’s attractive. My, look at that! What art! craftsmanship!

70 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues2_3 Dialogue II Phrases, sentences and expressions Admiration for things people do I wish I could How do you manage to I do admire the way people (keep looking so brisk and energetic). / ? You’re so good at capable in (keeping the house elegantly simple). I do envy you! (You seem to have time for everything.) The way (you educate the young) is absolutely amazing. simply beyond me.

71 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues2_2 Dialogue II Phrases, sentences and expressions Modest replies Oh, Thank you, but there’s nothing to it really. Thank you. I’m flattered. Well, I love being busy, being active, to be like that, you know. Please don’t exaggerate, it can’t be that good. isn’t like what you said at all.

72 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul I’m quite struck by such a magnificent piece of architecture. It’s brilliantly white under the sun. My Uncle Bill has been there. He told me something about this unique ancient structure. It’s made of fine white marble. Dialogue II Dialogue Two students are reading an illustrated pamphlet on the Taj Mahal, the tomb of the Indian Shah Jehan and his wife. They are admiring its magnificent structure. Dialogues2_4 A: B:

73 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul A: B: A: B: Not entirely of white marble. See the colored inlays here? Such beautiful colors and tastefully matched too! Are they also marble? They’re colored marble, I believe. The platform under the structure was made of red sandstone. Look at the four elegant towers on the corners of the platform! Aren’t they exquisite! And what a beautiful garden surrounding the Taj Mahal! The green trees seem to make the marble even whiter. Dialogues2_5 Dialogue II Dialogue

74 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogue II Dialogue Dialogues2_6 And the pool in front of the main entrance to the building. What a brilliant design! See the reflection in the water? Just beautiful! My uncle told me that the Taj Mahal is most beautiful at sunset. Then the marble picks up the color of the sunset, and the building and its reflection in the pool gleam like pink jewels. The sight is simply overwhelming! I heard that people prefer admiring it in moonlight. Then it’s really out of this world. A: B: A:

75 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogue II Dialogue Dialogues2_7 And when morning comes, the Taj Mahal turns from silver to gold. It must be gorgeous! I wish I could go to India and see it for myself. It’s unbelievable how Nature can give a human structure such mystic enchantment. B: A: B:

76 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul the Taj Mahal, the tomb of the Indian Shah Jehan and his wife: Dialogues_Notes 1_the Taj Mahal...

77 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul inlay: An inlay is a design or pattern on an object which is made by putting materials such as wood, gold, or silver into the surface of the object. In other words, inlay is a decorative technique of inserting pieces of colored materials into depressions in a base object to form patterns or pictures. Dialogues_Notes 1_inlay

78 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues_Notes 1_it’s really out of this world … it’s really out of this world: If you say that something is out of this world, you are emphasizing that it is extremely good or impressive These new trains are out of this world.e.g.:

79 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues_Notes 1_illustrate illustrate: If you illustrate a book, you put pictures, photographs or diagrams into it He has illustrated the book with black-and- white photographs. e.g.:

80 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues_Notes 1_pamphlet pamphlet: A pamphlet is a very thin book, with a paper cover, which gives information about something

81 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues_Notes 1_strike strike: v. If you are struck by something, you think it is very impressive, noticeable, or interesting What struck me about the firm is how genuinely friendly and informal it is. e.g.:

82 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues_Notes 1_match match: v. If something of a particular color or design matches another thing, they have the same color or design, or have a pleasing appearance when they are used together You don’t have to match your lipstick exactly to your outfit. e.g.:

83 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues_Notes 1_platform platform: A platform is a flat raised structure or area, usually one which something can stand on or land on They found a spot on a rocky platform where they could pitch their tents. e.g.:

84 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues_Notes 1_pick up pick up: If you pick up something such as a skill, feature or an idea, you acquire it without effort over a period of time Young people are picking up ideas about good drugs and bad drugs. e.g.:

85 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues_Notes 1_gleam gleam: If an object or a surface gleams, it reflects light because it is shiny and clean His black hair gleamed in the sun.e.g.:

86 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues_Notes 1_overwhelming overwhelming: If something is overwhelming, it affects you very strongly, and you do not know how to deal with it She felt an overwhelming desire to have another child. e.g.:

87 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues_Notes 1_gorgeous gorgeous: If you say that something is gorgeous, you mean that it gives you a lot of pleasure or is very attractive Some of the Renaissance buildings are gorgeous. e.g.:

88 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogues_Notes 1_mystic enchantment mystic enchantment: Mystic means the same as mystical. If you say that something has enchantment, you mean that it makes you feel great delight or pleasure The wilderness campsite had its own peculiar enchantment. e.g.:

89 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul 1) The terracotta warriors in Xi’an 2) Shanhaiguan 3) The Chinese and American Women’s Volleyball Teams vying for the Olympic championship in ) A modern iron and steel works. Oral practice 2_1 1. Work in pairs. Bring to class some pictures. Take turns to admire the pictures strongly and mildly. Some ideas: Dialogue II Oral practice

90 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Oral practice 2_2 Dialogue II Oral practice 2. Work in pairs. Admire what your partner is doing or has done. When it’s your turn to be admired, make suitable replies. Here are some ideas: 1) English studies; 2) sports; 3) typing

91 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Oral practice 2_2 Dialogue II Oral practice 3. Suggest situations in which the following remarks are appropriate. 1) You were wonderful! We were all so proud of you! 2) It’s lovely. It must have taken you hours. 3) Exceptionally well expressed! You have interesting ideas.

92 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Oral practice 2_2 Sample Dialogue II Oral practice 4. Give assignments beforehand. Ask students to bring his or her favorite thing to class, such as a beautiful dress, a classical CD, a rare stamp, etc, anything you are sure of gaining admiration from others. Then ask them to work in pairs: show to each other your favorite things and express admiration.

93 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Oral practice 2_2 Dialogue II Oral practice 5. Think out something your classmates have done which you really appreciate. Show him or her your admiration, and some modest replies are expected.

94 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul A: B: A: B: Sample 1_1 Wonderful day today, isn’t it? Yes, marvelous! Just look at my dress! Isn’t it also marvelous? Wow, what a beautiful dress! I haven’t seen you have it on before. My mother gave it to me as my birthday present last week. And it’s my favorite dress. Dialogue II Oral practice Sample:

95 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogue II Oral practice Sample 1_2 A: B: A: B: No wonder you like it so much. It’s so brilliantly designed. Yes, the collar is so uniquely designed that I appreciate it immensely. Mm...I like that, too. What’s more, this is the most fantastic decorative pattern I have ever seen. Really? I didn’t expect such a high praise.

96 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Dialogue II Oral practice Sample 1_2 A: B: A: B: The decorative pattern is so nice. Don’t you think so? I’m sure you will be the most beautiful girl in the class when you put it on. Thank you. I’m flattered. Well, I love being beautiful, you know. I do envy you! How I wish I could have a dress like that too ! Come on! Surely you will.

97 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_MAIN Reading I Pre-reading Questions Background Knowledge Reading II Text Comprehension Questions Text Comprehension Questions Translation Text Analysis

98 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading I Pre-reading Questions Do you know any well-known architecture both at home and abroad? If yes, say something about it. Do you know any touching story that is closely related to a building? If yes, say something about it. How much do you know about India? Say something about it. Reading 1_1 ● ● ●

99 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading I Background Knowledge Taj Mahal is regarded as one of the eight wonders of the world, and some Western historians have noted that its architectural beauty has never been surpassed. The Taj is the most beautiful monument built by the Mughals, the Muslim rulers of India. Taj Mahal is built entirely of white marble. Its stunning architectural beauty is beyond adequate description, particularly at dawn and sunset. The Taj seems to glow in the light of the full moon. On a foggy morning, the visitors experience the Taj as if suspended when viewed from across the Jamuna river. Taj Mahal was built by a Muslim, Emperor Shah Jahan (died 1666 C.E.) in the memory of his dear wife and queen Mumtaz Mahal at Agra, India. It is an “elegy in marble” or some say an expression of a “dream”. Reading 1_2 Taj Mahal, Agra, India

100 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading 1_3 Reading I Background Knowledge Taj Mahal (meaning Crown Palace) is a Mausoleum that houses the grave of Queen Mumtaz Mahal at the lower chamber. The grave of Shah Jahan was added to it later. The queen’s real name was Arjumand Banu. In the tradition of the Mughals, important ladies of the royal family were given another name at their marriage or at some other significant event in their lives, and that new name was commonly used by the public. Shah Jahan’s real name was Shahab-ud-din, and he was known as Prince Khurram before ascending to the throne in Taj Mahal was constructed over a period of twenty-two years, employing twenty thousand workers. It was completed in 1648 C.E. at a cost of 32 Million Rupees. The construction documents show that its master architect was Ustad ‘Isa, the renowned Islamic architect of his time. The documents contain names of those employed and the inventory of

101 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading 1_4 Reading I Background Knowledge construction materials and their origin. Expert craftsmen from Delhi, Qannauj, Lahore, and Multan were employed. In addition, many renowned Muslim craftsmen from Baghdad, Shiraz and Bukhara worked on many specialized tasks. The Taj stands on a raised, square platform (186×186 feet) with its four corners truncated, forming an unequal octagon. The architectural design uses the interlocking arabesque concept, in which each element stands on its own and perfectly integrates with the main structure. It uses the principles of self-replicating geometry and a symmetry of architectural elements. Its central dome is fifty-eight feet in diameter and rises to a height of 213 feet. It is flanked by four subsidiary domed chambers. The four

102 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading 1_4 Reading I Background Knowledge graceful, slender minarets are feet each. The entire mausoleum (inside as well as outside) is decorated with inlaid design of flowers and calligraphy using precious gems such as agate and jasper. The main archways, chiseled with passages from the Holy Qur’an and the bold scroll work of flowery pattern, give a captivating charm to its beauty. The central domed chamber and four adjoining chambers include many walls and panels of Islamic decoration. The mausoleum is a part of a vast complex comprising of a main gateway, an elaborate garden, a mosque (to the left), a guest house (to the right), and several other palatial buildings. The Taj is at the farthest end of this complex, with the river Jamuna behind it. The large garden contains four reflecting pools dividing it at the center. Each of these four sections is

103 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading 1_4 Reading I Background Knowledge further subdivided into four sections and then each into yet another four sections. Like the Taj, the garden elements serve like Arabesque, standing on their own and also constituting the whole.

104 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading I Text Everyone who has seen the Taj Mahal in India would probably agree that it is indeed a thing of beauty. And it has certainly given joy to millions of people since its completion in the middle of the seventeenth century. It is doubtful that any other structure has ever been modelled, painted, photographed, or described as often as the Taj Mahal. India is a land of architectural magnificence, having many ornate and exquisite temples, monuments, and palaces. The best-known of all these is the beautiful Taj Mahal, a tomb built by an emperor in honour of his beloved wife. It has been called “a poem in marble” and is said to be the most expensive compliment paid to a woman. Perfect in symmetry, its beauty has never been surpassed. Reading 1_5 The Taj Mahal

105 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading I Text Reading 1_6 The history connected with the Taj Mahal is a very poignant one. When the emperor’s wife was about to die, she made two requests of him: first, that he would never marry again; and second, that he would build her a tomb that would make her name remembered forever. These wishes the grief-stricken emperor readily promised to fulfill. And in the palace during the long, lonely nights that followed her death, he considered how he could best express in a monument his tender feelings for his wife. He wanted the monument to be as lovely as she was. At last the idea for the memorial came to him in a dream, and the great work was begun.

106 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Surrounding the Taj Mahal are beautiful formal gardens, and leading up to the main entrance are cypress-lined reflecting pools where sparkling fountains play. Also on the grounds are a mosque and a guesthouse. Each structure adds to the beauty of the others, and together they all make up a whole whose charm has never been matched. Reading I Text Reading 1_7 Built of white marble that shimmers in both sunlight and moonlight, the Taj Mahal stands on an eighteen-foot-high marble platform which has a delicate minaret on each corner. In the centre of the platform stands the tomb itself, octagonal in shape, crowned with a graceful dome rising high above it. There are four smaller domes around the central dome which duplicate it in design, as do the domes on top of the four dainty minarets. In the moonlight, these lovely domes seem to float like clouds in a deep-blue sea.

107 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul It is reported that it took twenty thousand men working for almost twenty years to complete this unique and delicately feminine memorial. Most of the workers were from India, but others were brought from Persia, Iraq, Turkey, and Afghanistan. Artists were brought from as far away as Italy and Portugal to help decorate the walls, both inside and outside, with inlays of precious and semiprecious stones, and to create mosaic designs of great intricacy. One of the mosaic flowers they created may have as many as three hundred pieces of stone in it. The walls inside the tomb were originally covered with gold, and there was a canopy with ten thousand pearls on it. Many of the jewels and other valuable materials were later taken from the Taj Mahal by vandals, but the white marble with its soft warm glow still remains. Reading I Text Reading 1_7

108 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul The emperor planned that when the Taj Mahal was completed he would build a similar tomb of black marble for his own burial place. It was to be built on the opposite side of the nearby river and was to be connected to the Taj Mahal by a silver bridge, which would symbolize his happy marriage with his wife. But the second tomb was never built. By the time the Taj Mahal was finished, the emperor’s sons had grown to manhood and were quarrelling with each other over which one should be the next emperor. Finally the second son succeeded in banishing one brother and killing the other two. He then seized the throne and imprisoned his father in a fort about a mile away, where he was forced to spend the last eight years of his life — out of sight of the lovely Taj Mahal. Reading I Text Reading 1_7

109 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading I Text Reading 1_8 One day, however, the old emperor happened to notice a tiny mirror embedded in one of the pillars of the balcony where he was allowed to walk. Upon closer examination, he discovered that the little mirror, which was no more than an inch across, reflected the entire Taj Mahal. From that time until his death, he spent many hours enjoying the miniature reflection of the beautiful monument he had built for his wife; and when he died, he was buried there beside her.

110 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul minaret: A minaret is a tall thin tower which is part of a mosque Dialogues_Notes 1_minaret

111 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul octagonal: Something that is octagonal has eight straight sides Dialogues_Notes 1_octagonal

112 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul dome: A dome is a round roof Dialogues_Notes 1_dome

113 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul formal (garden): A formal garden or room is arranged in a very regular and controlled way, especially according to certain rules of design Dialogues_Notes 1_formal e.g.:The Coronata wallpaper lends a formal air to the dining room.

114 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul reflecting (pools): When something is reflected in a mirror or in water, you can see its image in the mirror or in the water Dialogues_Notes 1_reflecting e.g.:His image seemed to be reflected many times in the mirror.

115 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul sparkling (fountains play): If something sparkles, it is clear and bright and shines with a lot of very small points of light. The sentences mean “sparkling fountains shoot up lightly and continuously” Dialogues_Notes 1_sparkling

116 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul mosque: A mosque is a building where Muslims go to worship Dialogues_Notes 1_mosque

117 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul feminine (memorial): Someone or something that is feminine has qualities that are considered typical of women, especially being pretty or gentle Dialogues_Notes 1_feminine

118 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul precious and semi-precious stones: A precious stone is a valuable stone, such as a diamond or a ruby, that is used for making jewellery. Semi-precious stones are stones such as turquoises and amethysts that are used in jewellery but are less valuable than precious stones such as diamonds and rubies Dialogues_Notes 1_precious

119 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul mosaic: A mosaic is a design which consists of small pieces of colored glass, pottery, or stone set in concrete or plaster Dialogues_Notes 1_mosaic

120 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul canopy: A canopy is a decorated cover, often made of cloth, which spreads out and is placed above something such as a bed or a seat Dialogues_Notes 1_canopy

121 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul fort: A fort is a strong building or a place with a wall or fence around it where soldiers can stay and be safe from the enemy Dialogues_Notes 1_fort

122 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul pillar & balcony: A pillar is a tall solid structure, which is usually used to support part of a building. A balcony is a platform on the outside of a building, above ground level, with a wall or railing around it Dialogues_Notes 1_pillar

123 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul doubtful: If it is doubtful that something will happen, it seems unlikely to happen or you are uncertain whether it will happen Reading_Words 1_doubtful e.g.:It is doubtful whether Tweed, even with his fluent French, passed for one of the locals.

124 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Words 1_model model: v. If one thing is modeled on another, the first thing is made so that it is like the second thing in some way e.g.:She asked the author if she had modeled her hero on anybody in particular.

125 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Words 1_ornate ornate: An ornate building, piece of furniture, or object is decorated with complicated patterns or shapes

126 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul exquisite: Something that is exquisite is extremely beautiful or pleasant, especially in a delicate way Reading_Words 1_exquisite

127 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Words 1_in honour of in honor of: If something is arranged in honor of a particular event, it is arranged in order to celebrate that event. If something is arranged or happens in someone’s honor, it is done specially to show appreciation of them e.g.:The United Nations has issued a stamp in honor of Captain Alfred Dreyfus.

128 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Words 1_compliment compliment: n. A compliment is a polite remark that you say to someone to show that you like their appearance, appreciate their qualities, or approve of what they have done e.g.:You can do no harm by paying a woman compliments.

129 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul surpass: If one person or thing surpasses another, the first is better than, or has more of a particular quality than, the second e.g.:He was determined to surpass the achievements of his older brothers. Reading_Words 1_surpass

130 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul poignant: Something that is poignant affects you deeply and makes you feel sadness or regret e.g.:Harry thought the sight of her was inexpressibly poignant. Reading_Words 1_poignant

131 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul fulfill: If you fulfill something such as a promise, dream, or hope, you do what you said or hoped you would do e.g.:President Kaunda fulfilled his promise of announcing a date for the referendum. Reading_Words 1_fulfill

132 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul shimmer: If something shimmers, it shines with a faint, unsteady light or has an unclear, unsteady appearance e.g.:The trees shimmered in the afternoon heat. Reading_Words 1_shimmer

133 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul delicate: Something that is delicate is small and beautifully shaped Reading_Words 1_delicate

134 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul crown: v. If one thing crowns another, it is on top of it e.g.:Trees crowned the hill. Reading_Words 1_crown

135 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul duplicate: v. If you duplicate something that has already been done, you repeat or copy it e.g.:This research merely duplicates work already done elsewhere. Reading_Words 1_duplicate

136 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul dainty: If you describe a movement, person, or object as dainty, you mean that they are small, delicate, and pretty Reading_Words 1_dainty

137 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul add to: If one thing adds to another, it makes the other thing greater in degree or amount e.g.:Overnight bed-rest in a clinic adds substantially to the cost of cosmetic surgery. Reading_Words 1_add to

138 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul match: v. If you match something, you are as good as it or equal to it, for example in speed, size, or quality e.g.:His record has never been matched. Reading_Words 1_match

139 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul intricacy: Intricacy is the state of being made up of many small parts or details e.g.:Garments are priced from $100 to several thousand dollars, depending on the intricacy of the work. Reading_Words 1_intricacy

140 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul vandal: A vandal is someone who deliberately damages things, especially public property Reading_Words 1_vandal

141 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul symbolize: If one thing symbolizes another, it is used or regarded as a symbol of it e.g.:The fall of the Berlin Wall symbolized the end of the Cold War between East and West. Reading_Words 1_symbolize

142 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul banish: If someone or something is banished from a place or area of activity, they are sent away from it and prevented from entering it e.g.:They tried to banish him from politics. Reading_Words 1_banish

143 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul seize: If you seize something, you take hold of it quickly, firmly, and forcefully e.g.:Seize the chance, otherwise you’ll regret it. Reading_Words 1_seize

144 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul happen to (notice): If you happen to do something, you do it by chance. If it happens that something is the case, it occurs by chance e.g.:I happen to have the official statistics with me. Reading_Words 1_happen to

145 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul embed: If an object embeds itself in a substance or thing, it becomes fixed there firmly and deeply e.g.:The harpoon struck but did not embed. Reading_Words 1_embed

146 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul close: adj. Close inspection or observation of something is careful and thorough e.g.:He discovered, on closer inspection, that the rocks contained gold. Reading_Words 1_close

147 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul miniature: Miniature is used to describe something which is very small, especially a smaller version of something which is normally much bigger e.g.:He looked like a miniature version of his handsome and elegant big brother. Reading_Words 1_miniature

148 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading I Comprehension Questions Questions1_1 1. The Taj Mahal is. A. a poem C. a monument B. a temple D. a palace C ___ Find the right answer from the following choices based on your reading. 2. The Taj Mahal is the most expensive compliment that. A. a woman gets C. an emperor offers B. a woman gives D. an emperor builds A ___

149 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Questions1_2 Reading I Comprehension Questions 3. Which two groups of words have something to do with the Taj Mahal? A. emperor, wife, prince C. treasure, guard, flower B. death, memorial, dream D. marble, platform, minaret B&D _____ 4. The tomb was built by. A. Indians only B. workers from West Asia C. workers from some European countries D. Indians as well as foreigners D ___

150 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Questions1_3 Reading I Comprehension Questions 5. A similar tomb of black marble. A. was planned to be built B. was built when the Taj Mahal was completed C. had been built before the Taj Mahal was completed D. will be built A ___

151 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Questions1_3 Reading I Comprehension Questions Briefly answer the following questions 1. When and in which country was the Taj Mahal built? The Taj Mahal was built by an Indian king in memory of his dead queen. 2. What is the Taj Mahal and why was it built? The Taj Mahal was a tomb or a monument for his beloved wife after her death. 3. What is the Taj Mahal built of? The Taj Mahal was built of white marble.

152 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Questions1_3 Reading I Comprehension Questions 4. Where were the workers from? Most of the workers were from India, but others were brought from Persia, Iraq, Turkey, and Afghanistan. And artists from Italy and Portugal were brought in. 5. Was a tomb of black marble built when the Taj Mahal was completed? Why or why not? No. The tomb had been planned, but it was suspended due to internal disorder of the royal family. 6. Where did the Emperor spend his last years? The Emperor spent his last years in a fort about one mile away from the Taj Mahal.

153 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Questions1_3 Reading I Comprehension Questions 7. Where was he buried? The Emperor was buried there beside his wife.

154 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Text Analysis1_1 Reading I Translation 1. 他们紧急请求国际援助。 (make request for) They’ve made an urgent request for international aid. 2. 农民工只占全国人口的一小部分。 (make up) Farm workers make up only a small section of the population. 3. 听到了我们的请求,他即刻欣然答应帮忙。 (readily) Upon hearing our request, he readily promised to help. 4. 他的房子就坐落在这座小山上。 (stand v.) His house stands right on the hill. 5. 我对我先前说的话, 没有什么补充的。 (add to) I have nothing to add to my earlier statement.

155 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Text Analysis1_2 Reading I Text Analysis 6. 再经仔细观察, 证实那幅画是膺品。 (close, adj.) On closer examination the painting proved to be a fake. 7. 这座纪念碑是纪念为国牺牲的士兵而建立的。 (in honor of) The monument was erected in honor of the soldiers who died for the country.

156 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Anyone who has been in Turkey will remember the day when he first saw the skyline of Istanbul. There are many interesting buildings in the city, but those that stand out most in one’s memory are the mosques, with their many domes and delicate minarets. These beautiful structures are where the Moslems go to worship. Istanbul has about a million inhabitants, and most of them are Moslems. For this reason, one sees mosques in almost every direction. No wonder the skyline of this Turkish city is so fascinating! Many mosques have only one minaret, but the Blue Mosque has six. In fact, it is the only one in the world with that number. A more unusual feature, however, is the interior of the building. There the walls are covered with thousands of blue tiles, which make a soft glow inside the mosque and give it its name. This is the favorite mosque of almost everyone who visits Istanbul. Reading2_1 Reading II Text The Mosques of Istanbul

157 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading2_2 Another famous place in the city is the Saint Sophia Museum, which is only a short distance from the Blue Mosque. This ancient building is considered one of the world’s finest religious structures. Because of this, it is now a museum rather than a place where people worship. On entering it, one is immediately impressed by the size of its interior and its huge marble columns. The big central dome appears to be floating in the air, with nothing to support it. The architect who planned Saint Sophia truly created a work of art.

158 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Notes 1_skyline skyline: The skyline is the line or shape that is formed where the sky meets buildings or the land

159 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Notes 1_the Blue Mosque the Blue Mosque:

160 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Notes 1_tile tile: Tiles are flat pieces of baked clay which are used for covering roofs

161 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Notes 1_the Saint Sophia Museum the Saint Sophia Museum:

162 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Notes 1_marble marble: Marble is a type of very hard rock which feels cold when you touch it and which shines when it is cut and polished. Statues and parts of buildings are sometimes made of marble

163 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Notes 1_columns columns: A column is a tall, often decorated cylinder of stone which is built to honor someone or forms part of a building

164 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Notes 1_stand out stand out: If something stands out, it is very noticeable e.g.:Grammatical errors are always obvious to me, spelling mistakes stand out.

165 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Notes 1_worship worship: v. If you worship a god, you show your respect to the god, for example by saying prayers e.g.:I enjoy going to church and worshipping God.

166 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Notes 1_no wonder no wonder: If you say ‘no wonder’, you mean that something is not surprising. Alternatives are ‘little wonder’, or ‘small wonder’ e.g.:No wonder that he decided to take no part in the debate.

167 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Notes 1_fascinating fascinating: If you describe something as fascinating, you find it very interesting and attractive, and your thoughts tend to concentrate on it e.g.:Madagascar is the most fascinating place I have ever been to.

168 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Notes 1_rather than rather than: You use rather than when you are contrasting two things or situations. Rather than introduces the thing or situation that is not true or that you do not want e.g.:The problem was psychological rather than physiological.

169 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading_Notes 1_impress impress: If something impresses you, you feel great admiration for it e.g.:What impressed him most was their speed. I was very impressed by one young man at my lectures.

170 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reading II Comprehension Questions 1. Why do visitors remember the day when they first saw the skyline of Istanbul? Because the city is characterized with many mosques with so many domes and delicate minarets. 2. How does the Blue Mosque get its name? An unusual feature of the Blue Mosque is its interior, where the walls are covered with thousands of blue tiles, which make a soft glow inside the mosque. This gives it its name. Questions 2_1 3. Why is Saint Sophia now a museum rather than a place for worship? Because the building is considered one of the world’s finest religious structure.

171 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Text Analysis1_1 Reading I Text Analysis Make an analysis of the structures of the texts: Structural analysis of Reading I: Para.1: Para.2: Para.3, 8, 9, 10: Para.4, 5, 6, 7: Everyone would agree that the Taj Mahal is a thing of beauty. The best-known architecture in India is the beautiful Taj Mahal, a tomb built by an emperor in honor of his beloved wife. The history connected with the Taj Mahal is a very poignant one. the descriptions of the arrangement and the materials of the building, and its surroundings.

172 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Text Analysis1_1 Reading I Text Analysis Make an analysis of the structures of the texts: Structural analysis of Reading II: Para.1: a general summary: what stands out most in one’s memory about Istanbul are the mosques, with their many domes and delicate minarets. Para.2: the Blue Mosque Para.3: the Saint Sophia Museum

173 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Exercise_MAIN Exercises Vocabulary Spot Dictation Additional Reading Exercise Translation Guided Writing Note Writing

174 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul 1. sack Exercises Vocabulary A. Each of the following words has more than one meaning. Write sentences of your own, bringing out at least two meanings for each. Vocabulary 1_1 1) If you are late again the boss will give you the sack. 2) There is a sack of potatoes at the corner of the room. 3) The company’s threat to sack anyone who went on strike was just (a) bluff. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

175 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Exercises Vocabulary Vocabulary 1_1 2. jam 1) Traffic jams in the town happen everyday. 2) The government tried to jam the guerrillas’ telecommunication. 3) The holiday traffic is jamming the roads. 4) He spread some apple jam on the bread. 5) The key turned halfway and then jammed. 6) How am I going to get out of this jam? __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

176 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Exercises Vocabulary Vocabulary 1_1 3. temple 1) The man looks like a cartoon character with a plaster on his temple. 2) The exclusion of women from the temple made them feel sad. 3) We reached the temple through an unfrequented mountain track. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ 4. post 1) Has the morning post arrived? 2) The names of the members of the team will be posted up today. 3) He asked them to keep him posted about the sales of his book. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

177 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Exercises Vocabulary Vocabulary 1_1 5. case 1) She thought she was hurt but it wasn’t the case. 2) We ordered 3 cases of soda for the party. 3) The goods have been cased up for transport. 4) In your case, we are prepared to be lenient. 5) In case of fire, ring the alarm bell. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ 6. attend 1) Danger attended everything he did. 2) I shall be attending the meeting. 3) They attended college together at the University of Pennsylvania. There are more pressing matters to be attended to today. __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

178 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Thomas Alva Edison was awarded more patents on inventions than any other American. When he d in 1931, Americans wondered h they could best s their respect for h. One suggestion was t the nation observe a m or two of t blackout. All electric p would be shut o in homes, streets, and f. Perhaps this s plan made Americans r fully what Edison and his i meant to them. E power was too important t the country, s it off for even a s time would have l to complete confusion. A blackout was o of question. Vocabulary 2_4 Exercises Vocabulary ied ___ B. Fill in each blank with a word beginning with the letter printed below. ow ___ how ___ im __ hat ___ inute ____ otal ___ ower ____ ff __ actories ______ uggested ______ ealize _____ nvention ______ lectric _____ o _ hutting _____ hort ___ ed __ ut __

179 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul On the day of Edison’s f, many people silently dimmed their l. In this way they h the man w had done more than a else to put the g force of electricity at his country men’s fingertips. Vocabulary 2_8 Exercises Vocabulary uneral _____ ights ____ onored _____ ho __ nyone _____ reat ___

180 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul If George Washington (be) able to travel back and forth in time, he (feel) much more at home in ancient Babylon, 3,700 years before his time, than in our modern age, 200 years after he (live). Torches, chariots, and rough streets, like those of Babylon in 2060 B.C., (not surprise) him. He (read) by candlelight and (ride) in carriages on unpaved roads. He never (see) a building more than four stories high. Electric lights, autos, highways, and skyscrapers (amaze) him. Vocabulary 2_4 Exercises Vocabulary C. Fill in each blank with the proper form of the given verb, using a modal auxiliary where necessary. had been _______ would have felt ____________ lived ____ would not have surprised __________________ would have read ____________ would have ridden ______________ would never have seen _________________ would have amazed _______________

181 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul When Washington (be) ill, he (expect) to be cut and bled to let out the “bad blood” that (make) him sick. He (not know) what a modern doctor (mean) by serums, germs, and allergies. If the Father of the country (visit) the United States now, he (think) that he (land) on another planet. Vocabulary 2_4 Exercises Vocabulary was ___ would expect __________ had made _______ would not have known _________________ meant _____ could visit ________ would think _________ had landed _________

182 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul 1. Many scientists remain that true AI (Artificial Intelligence) can ever be developed. 2. At one time the walls inside the pyramid were covered with beautifully cast bronze plates that were said to like gold. 3. The fairies have been described as being a few inches high, airy and almost transparent in body; so in their form that a dewdrop, when they chance to dance on it, trembles, indeed, but never breaks. 4. Another special-purpose telephone is a facsimile machine, or fax machine, which produces a of a document sent from a distant place. Vocabulary 3_1 Exercises Vocabulary D. Fill in each of the following blanks with a word or phrase in the proper form that is found in Reading I. doubtful ______ shimmer ______ delicate ______ duplicate _______

183 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Vocabulary 3_8 Exercises Vocabulary 5. In old times, the wealth of a country was measured in terms of the goods it possessed, particularly gold and metals. 6. The three grammatical genders into which all Russian nouns fall are the masculine, the, and the neuter. 7. In Asia, Africa, and Oceania, women’s dance styles are generally less energetic, calling for movement, with smaller steps, and with fewer (and lower) jumps and kicks. 8. The hostess received a lot of from the guests for her wonderful preparation of the typical French cuisine. 9. After taking a long rest, he came in cheerfully with the obvious back in his cheeks. precious ______ feminine _______ graceful ______ compliments _________ glow ____

184 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Vocabulary 3_13 Exercises Vocabulary 10. After being again from France in 1849, Karl Marx spent the remainder of his life in London. banished _______

185 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul People are often at their best in emergencies. In New York City’s blackout in 1966, for example, when all electricity was, the citizens of that generally cool and showed an unusual degree of toward one another. Workers caught in for nine hours spent their time getting to know one another, exchanging addresses, and to reunite when the was over. Citizens helped guide each other out of where trains had been. Police reported that they had received more offers of volunteer help than they could use. Police also that the rate of muggings and other attacks came down during the power loss. In ordinary times, people can be very indifferent toward their citizens, but extraordinary times have a way of bringing out concern and involvement. Exercises Spot Dictation Spot Dictation 1_1 A. Listen to the recording and fill in the blanks with the missing words. cut off _____ impersonal town ____________ warmth ______ stalled elevators ___________ promising _______ emergency ________ dark subway tunnels _______________ stuck ____ reported _______ fellow _____

186 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Exercises Spot Dictation Spot Dictation 1_1 B. Listen to the recording and fill in the blanks with the missing words. In the heart of Cambridge there’s a famous narrow street called Petty Cury that once contained an interesting variety of shops, restaurants and hotels. Here could buy fish, vegetables, books or clothes, or have lunch or get a haircut. The different of architecture gave the street and. But in 1972, the street was and one side was completely to make way for redevelopment. Today the modern frontage of and glass is as monotonous as the shops, sell only clothes. people can now walk along Petty Cury by traffic, the picturesque mixture of buildings in the name of progress. shoppers _______ styles ____ its particular charm ______________ atmosphere _________ pulled down _________ concrete _______ closed to traffic ____________ most of which ___________ Although _______ undisturbed _________ has disappeared forever _________________

187 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Exercises Translation A. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. Jack 昨天非常忙,否则的话,他一定会到火车站去接你的。 (otherwise) Jack was very busy yesterday; otherwise he would have gone to meet you at the station. Translation 1_1 2. 要不是医生的及时治疗,我将终身残废 (be disabled / crippled) 。 (if it...) If it hadn’t been for the doctor’s timely treatment, I would be disabled / crippled for life. 3. 为纪念在这次战斗中阵亡的英勇士兵们,这个城市落成了一 座纪念碑。 (honor) The city erected a monument in honor of the brave soldiers who died / laid down their lives / were killed in this battle.

188 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul A. Translate the following sentences into English. Translation 1_2 Exercises Translation 4. 他二十年的辛勤工作最终使他赢得了诺贝尔医学奖。 (crown v.) His twenty years’ hard work was crowned with the Nobel Prize for medicine. 5. 气球和彩带大大地增添了节日的气氛。 (add) The balloons and colored ribbons added greatly to the festive atmosphere. 6. 这些问题是如此密切地互相联系着,我们必须将它们作为一 个整体来研究。 (whole) These problems are so closely related to each other that we should examine them as a whole.

189 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul 王:在美国时你常看电视吗? Wang: Translation 1_4 Exercises Translation B . Translate the following passages into English. Did you use to watch TV when you were in the United States? 李:我不喜欢美国的电视。人们不断互相袭击和枪击。如果没有 这些暴力内容,我也许会常看的。 Li: No, I didn ’ t like American TV. People kept hitting each other and shooting each other. If it hadn ’ t been for all the violence, I would have watched often. 王:有些节目里暴力是够多的,但也许生活就是如此的。 Wang:Some of the shows are pretty violent. But maybe life is like that.

190 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Translation 1_4 李:我不信,我在那儿碰到的人心地都很好。 Li: I don ’ t believe it. The people I ’ ve met there are very kind. 王:我认识的人也是那样。 Wang:So are the people I know. 李:也许好人不够有趣。 Li: Maybe nice people aren ’ t interesting enough. 王:你可能是对的。如果没有耸人听闻的新闻,人们就不会去 买报纸。 Wang: You ’ re probably right. People won ’ t buy newspapers unless there ’ s exciting news in them.

191 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Translation 1_4 李:那就是为什么电视上有那么多暴力的原因吗?如果没有暴 力,人们就不看电视节目了吗? Li: Is that why there is so much violence on TV? Won ’ t people watch a show unless violent things happen? 王:我不知道。 Wang: I don ’ t know.

192 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul A. In the following paragraph, the first and the last sentences are missing. Listed below the paragraph are three alternatives for each. Working in groups of two or three, choose the most suitable. Tell your reasons. Then write a paragraph of your own, using any one of the first and last sentences and exercise your imagination. Guided Writing 1_1 Exercises Guided Writing Her husband died several years previously and left her almost nothing. She opened a snack bar in an area of small factories. Her meals were good and the prices were reasonable. Soon the bar developed into a restaurant. Within two years she was able to employ a manager to run the place while she herself devoted her time to the care of her three children. Whenever I visited her, she invariably prepared a meal big enough to feed

193 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Guided Writing 1_2 Exercises Guided Writing two and made me eat up every morsel. She was a good judge of character and expressed her opinions bluntly and frankly. She did not care if her remarks should hurt others’ feelings. 1) 2) 3) If my Aunt Ellen had not been a shrewd businesswoman, she would not have been so comfortably well off. You know my Aunt Ellen, she was the one who had three children. Aunt Ellen was the younger sister of Aunt Meg, who in turn was younger than Aunt Betty. 1. Choices for the first sentence:

194 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Guided Writing 1_4 Exercises Guided Writing Key: Students should read the paragraph three or four times until they have grasped the contents, thus making it easy for them to choose the first / topic and last / concluding sentences. 1) 2) 3) Nevertheless, she was well-liked, and she got on well with everybody, because she was honest, warm-hearted and generous. She was honest, warm-hearted and generous and she got on well with everybody. It is curious that she should still be so generous, warm-hearted and honest, which was something beyond my comprehension. 2. Choices for the last sentence:

195 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul The first / topic sentence should be (1). Reasons for the choice are: 1. the rest of the paragraph tells how she struggled for subsistence 2. the rest of the paragraph tells about her character that ensures her on her road to success The last / concluding sentence should be (1). The reason for the choice is that the last two sentences of the given paragraph — “ She was a good judge of character...hurt others ’ feelings ”. — describe her as critical and blunt, but actually she had good qualities, so the transitional word nevertheless brings out the contrast and concludes the paragraph. Suppose a paragraph is written with the topic sentence “ You know my Aunt Ellen, she was the one who had three children ”. and the concluding sentence “ She was honest, warm-hearted and generous and she got on well with everybody ”. Guided Writing 1_6 Exercises Guided Writing Key:

196 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Guided Writing 1_4 Exercises Guided Writing You know my Aunt Ellen, she was the one who had three children. When a child, she was rather reserved and plain. She was not as intelligent as her other sister Betsy, nor was she as quick-witted as her younger sister Doris. A young girl is usually pretty, but not Aunt Ellen, she looked quite homely. Not long after she got through high school, she married a driver of super-trucks. He earned enough to keep the family nicely fed and warmly clad and Aunt Ellen was a good hand at housekeeping. It was a happy family and I enjoyed calling on them. When the eldest child was barely 14, Aunt Ellen ’ s husband died in a car crash. At first we thought the family would be destitute. But with the pension and what little money she earned taking in some embroidery work, Aunt Ellen kept the family going. Now the children were all Reference version:

197 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Guided Writing 1_4 Exercises Guided Writing grown up, and Aunt Ellen worked as part-time social worker. She was honest, warmhearted and generous and she got on well with everybody. For this paragraph the third topic sentence can also be used. If the third concluding sentence is to be taken to end the paragraph, a change towards the end is necessary to make it sound natural, e.g.:... she kept the family going. She counted every penny and bent over her embroidery late into the night. But she was not bitter towards her hard life. It is curious that she should still be so generous, warm-hearted and honest, which was something beyond my comprehension. Reference version:

198 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Guided Writing 1_4 Exercises Guided Writing B. Write out the answers to the following questions, so that they form a coherent passage What are the visitors who go to Istanbul deeply impressed by? Where do the Moslems go to worship? Why can you see mosques in almost every direction? In what way is the Blue Mosque different from the ordinary mosques? What are its interior walls covered with? Is it the favorite mosque of the visitors? What is the Saint Sophia Museum in Istanbul considered to be? What impresses people as soon as they enter the museum? What is the contribution of the architect who planned it?

199 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Guided Writing 1_6 Exercises Guided Writing Reference version: The visitors who go to Istanbul are deeply impressed by the mosques where the Moslems go to worship. As most of the inhabitants are Moslems, you can see mosques in almost every direction. The Blue Mosque, unlike the ordinary one that has only one minaret, has six minarets. The interior walls are covered with thousands of blue tiles. It is the favorite mosque of the visitors. The Saint Sophia Museum in Istanbul is considered to be one of the world ’ s finest religious structures. As soon as people enter the museum they are immediately impressed by its size, its huge marble columns and its central dome. The architect who planned Saint Sophia had really created a work of art.

200 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul A.Work in groups of two or three, write a note asking after one’s health, using the cues given below. Note-writing 1_1 Exercises Note Writing 7 August, 20__ // Jane // expect / see / you / morning / swimming meet / you / swimming enthusiast // I / not see / you / I / inquire / you // sorry / you / sunstroke / day before yesterday // I / away / tonight / business trip / not able to / come / see / you // regrets // hope / get well // be seeing / you // take care // Enid

201 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reference version: Note-writing 1_2 Exercises Note Writing 7 August, 2008 Dear Jane, I expected to see you this morning at the swimming meet, as you have always been a swimming enthusiast. When I didn ’ t, I inquired about you. I ’ m sorry that you had a sunstroke the day before yesterday. As I ’ m going away tonight on a business trip, I won ’ t be able to come to see you. My regrets. I hope you ’ ll get well soon. I ’ ll be seeing you. Take care! Enid

202 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul 8 June 20__ // Ken // surprised / not to see / your brother / perform / play // he / play / role of hero // later / learn / he / stomach trouble // we / miss / excellent portrayal / character // how / he now // extend / regards // thanks // Mathew and Ernest Note-writing 1_3 Exercises Note Writing B. Write a note asking after one’s health, using the cues given below.

203 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Reference version: Note-writing 1_4 Exercises Note Writing 8 June, 2008 Dear Ken, We were surprised not to see your brother performing in the play last night. He should have been playing the role of the hero. Later we learned that he had had stomach trouble. We missed his excellent portrayal of the character. How is he now? Please extend our regards to him. Thank you. Mathew and Ernest

204 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Translate the following sentences into English by using the cues given in the brackets. Additional Reading1_1 Exercises Additional Reading Exercise 1. 他还没有意识到他的全部潜能。 (potential n.) He hasn’t realized his full potential yet. 2. 报纸上将她称为大有前途的青年歌手。 (promising) The newspapers described her as a promising young singer. 3. 许多古老的传说都是一代一代口传下来了。 (hand … down) Many old legends were handed down from generation to generation by mouth. 4. 需票者可亲自前来申请亦可来信索取。 (apply for) You may apply for tickets in person or by letter.

205 Unit 18 Save Our Heritage The Taj Mahl & Mosques of Istanbul Additional Reading1_2 Exercises Additional Reading Exercise 5. 他的绘画收藏令人叹为观止。 (impressive) His collection of paintings is the most impressive. 6. 民间音乐是一代一代地流传下来的。 (pass … down) Folk music has been passed down from one generation to another. 7. 我们打算做任何事时总由她来领头。 (take the lead) She always takes the lead when we plan to do anything. 8. 她秉承了她母亲的全部美貌。 (inherit) She inherited all her mother’s beauty.


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