Presentation on theme: "Section 1.3 Pages 384-391. A star is a hot, glowing ball of gas (mainly hydrogen) that gives off light energy. Very hot stars look blue, while cooler."— Presentation transcript:
Section 1.3 Pages 384-391
A star is a hot, glowing ball of gas (mainly hydrogen) that gives off light energy. Very hot stars look blue, while cooler stars look red. In the 1920's, Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris Russell compared the surface temperature of stars with its brightness (luminosity).Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris Russell Stars fall into distinct groupings.
An enormous explosion that marks the death of a massive star. Fusion has stopped and the star runs out of fuel. Gravity causes the star to collapse upon its self. The outer part of the star explodes with a shock wave.
A highly dense remnant of a star in which gravity is so strong that not even light from radiation going on inside the remnant can escape. Event horizon – point at which light cannot escape. Invisible to telescopes. This shows how the path of a beam of light bends in the vicinity of a non- rotating black hole.
Constellations are the groupings of stars we see as patterns in the night sky. There are 88 constellations and many are explained in Greek Mythology. Asterisms are also groupings of stars but are not officially recognized as constellations.
A galaxy is a grouping of millions or billions of stars, gas and dust. Held together by gravity. The Milky Way Galaxy is the galaxy our solar system is a part of. It is shaped like a flattened pinwheel, with arms spiralling out from the center.
Spiral – long curved arms radiating out from a bright central core – older to younger at the arms Elliptical – football or egg – mostly old stars Irregular – no notable shape – smaller size – mixture of young and old stars
Section 1.4 Pages 392-400
The Sun emits charged particles in all directions. This solar wind bombards the Earth at 400km/s, but the magnetic field of the Earth protects us.
1. A cloud of gas & dust in space begin swirling 2. Most of the matter (more than 90% of it) accumulates in the center - forming the Sun 3. The remaining materials accumulate (forming planets) and circle the Sun
Closest planet to the Sun Surface similar to our moon No atmosphere High temperature – 400 o C sunny side - 180 o C dark side
Similar in size, mass, and gravity to earth High surface temperature – 450 o C (melt lead) 90 x atmospheric pressure to Earth CO 2 cloud cover Rotates opposite to other planets – east to west
Only planet where water exists in solid, liquid, and gas Only planet to support life Atmosphere provides protection from the Sun 70% surface covered in water Active volcanism
Red planet – orangish – caused by iron oxides on surface Two polar ice caps (One of Co 2 + H 2 O and one of CO 2 ) Extremely cold surface temperature Varied surface topography 2 moons
Largest of all planets Twice the mass of all other planets combined Composed of mainly hydrogen and helium Great Red Spot – atmospheric storm Three thin rings 28 moons
19 moons Second largest planet 1000+ rings surround equator Composed mostly of hydrogen and helium High wind speeds over 1800 km/h due to fast rotation
Unusual axis of rotation – tilted toward the plane of its orbit –making it appear to roll its orbit Composed mostly of hydrogen and helium Methane in atmosphere gives it its blue colour Large ring system 17 moons
Composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, and methane Methane in atmosphere gives it its blue colour Little light reaches this planet Fastest wind speed – 2500 km/h Own ring system 8 moons
Cold frozen ball of methane Disqualified as a Planet due to its obit around the sun at 17.2 o – more elliptical Rotates east to west rather than west to east Some astronomers believe it and Charon (moon) are comets that have been captured by the gravity of the sun Originated from the Kuiper Belt
Asteroids – rocky, metallic bodies ranging in size of a few meters to hundreds of kilometres Comets – dirty snowballs – dust and ice and heat up when they come close to the sun, releasing gas Comets have predictable paths – large ellipses
Meteoroids – small pieces of rock flying through space with not particular path Meteor – a meteoroid that gets pulled into the atmosphere by gravity – heats up and gives off light Meteorite – a meteor that hits the surface
Solar System Space Videos National Geographic Space Videos National Geographic
Section 1.5 Pages 401-407
Altitude gives you the "how above the horizon it is” The point straight overhead has an altitude of +90 degrees Straight underneath, an altitude of -90 degrees. Points on the horizon have 0 degree altitudes. An object halfway up in the sky has an altitude of 45 degrees.
Azimuth determines "which compass direction it can be found in the sky." An azimuth of zero degrees puts the object in the North. An azimuth of 90 degrees puts the object in the East. An azimuth of 180 degrees puts the object in the South, and one of 270 degrees puts the object in the west. Zenith is the position in the sky directly overhead.
The path in the sky along which the Sun takes is called the ecliptic. The Celestial Sphere is the name given to the very large imaginary 'sphere of sky' surrounding the Earth.