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The Sun  Closest star to Earth  Yellow star  Medium in size compared to the other stars  About 4.6 billion years old  More than 1 million Earths.

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Presentation on theme: "The Sun  Closest star to Earth  Yellow star  Medium in size compared to the other stars  About 4.6 billion years old  More than 1 million Earths."— Presentation transcript:


2 The Sun  Closest star to Earth  Yellow star  Medium in size compared to the other stars  About 4.6 billion years old  More than 1 million Earths could fit inside it  Central body of our solar system  Main source of energy for Earth  Essential to life on this planet


4 Energy from the Sun  Made mostly of hydrogen and helium  The Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion  Nuclear fusion – changes hydrogen to helium  Only one-fourth as dense as Earth (Earth is a rocky planet)  Temperature on surface is 5,500 degrees Celsius (9,932 Fahrenheit)  Temperature at the core about 15,000,000 degrees Celsius


6 The Sun’s Effect on Earth’s Energy  Sun is the main source of energy on Earth  Solar radiation provides heat to keep Earth warm and livable  Ocean and atmosphere help moderate temperatures

7 The Sun’s Effect on Earth Food  Photosynthesis – plants use sunlight to produce food (producers)  When a consumer eats a plant the energy is transferred to the animal  The sun is the energy source for nearly all living things

8 The Sun’s Effect on Earth Winds  Winds form because of the sun  Winds blow from regions of high air pressure to low air pressure  Differences in air pressure form because of the Sun’s uneven heating of Earth’s surface

9 The Sun’s Effect on Earth Water Cycle  Drives the water cycle  Causes water on Earth’s surface to evaporate

10 Life Cycle of a Star  Nebula - All stars start from enormous rotating clouds of dust and gasses – mostly hydrogen  Protostar – the nebula collapses into a very dense mass  Main-Sequence Star – When a newly formed star stabilizes, this stage can last billions of years, our Sun is in this stage

11 Life Cycle of a Star  Red Giant – the outer part expands while the core contracts, becomes very bright but cools  Planetary Nebula – the outer layers are released  White Dwarf – over a long period of time the star shrinks, there is no fuel left in its core  Black Dwarf – remaining heat radiates into space until it fades to a black dwarf

12 Life Cycle of a Star

13  Planets – large bodies that orbit the Sun  Galaxy – a huge system of gas, dust and stars  Our solar system is a very small part of a much larger system called the Milky Way galaxy

14 Moons  Moon – a natural satellite orbiting around another body in space  About 140 moons in our solar system  Earth’s Moon  Diameter of 3,476 km – four times smaller than Earth  Rotates on an axis and revolves around Earth  One month for the Moon to make a complete rotation  Reflects the light from the sun  Phases are produced by the alignment of the Moon and the Sun in the sky.

15 Phases of the Moon

16 Asteroids  Relatively small, rocky object that orbits the sun  Most orbit in a band called the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter

17 Comets  A small, orbiting body made of dust, ice, and frozen gases.  When a comet approaches the sun, frozen solids vaporize  Gases and dust are released, producing a glowing region called a coma  Charged particles push out of the coma, producing a glowing tail  Some comets can take 30 million years to orbit the Sun

18 Meteoroids/Meteors  Meteoroids – bits of rock or metal that orbit the sun  Meteor – a meteoroid that enters Earth’s atmosphere and is heated by friction with the air  For a few moments, they burn as they fall, appearing as streaks of light against the sky  Also called falling/shooting stars

19 Inner Planets  Mercury  Closest to sun, extremely hot (800 degrees) and cold (- 343 degrees)  Cratered surface due to collisions with asteroids  Venus  Second planet from the sun  Covered by thick, poisonous clouds  Pressure would crush your bones  Almost the same size as Earth  Temperatures hot enough to melt lead

20 Inner Planets  Earth  Only planet known to have liquid water  Largest inner planet  Mars  Red planet, may have once had liquid water

21 Inner Planets Photo from Mars Rover Mercury Mars VenusEarth

22 Outer Planets  Jupiter  Fifth planet from the sun  One of the brightest object in the sky  Winds can reach up to 400mph  Famous for its Great Red Spot – storm system  Has many moons and rings  Saturn  Sixth planet from the sun  Known for its rings – made mostly of ice particles  Least dense - Saturn would float in water

23 Jupiter Saturn

24 Outer Planets  Uranus  Seventh plant from the sun  Has at least 27 moons and 11 rings  Neptune  Eighth planet  Winds can reach 1,500 mph  At least 11 moons  Pluto  Classified as a dwarf planet in 2006  3 moons

25 Gravity  Gravitation is an attractive force between objects that have mass  It is weak unless the masses involved are very large (like Earth)  Gravity causes objects to speed up as they fall  Acceleration due to gravity at Earth’s surface is about 9.8 meters per second per second  Air resistance, or drag, will slow a falling object

26 Planets Orbiting the Sun  Just like we are pulled to Earth because it has a greater mass than us – The sun has a greater mass than the Earth which pulls the planet keeping it in orbit around it

27 Astronomers  Astronomer – a scientist who studies outer space  Famous Astronomers  Copernicus – reasoned that the sun is at the center of the solar system  Galileo – the first person to use a telescope

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