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Presentation on theme: "CHANGES STEMMING FROM WWII AND THE COLD WAR WORLD The Retreat From Empire."— Presentation transcript:


2 India and China as symbols WWII brought substantial change to these states.  India emerged as Independent in 1947. British colonial prowess receded as it focused on reconstruction after WWII  China saw a long civil war emerge with global powers supporting each side in the Chinese Civil War.  The US and Soviet Union sought to protect their interests during the civil war with the US supporting the nationalists and the Soviets supporting the Communists.

3 De-Colonizaton Global conferences emerge to try and solve the issue—Geneva Conference created a divided Vietnam in the wake of Vietnam. The French legacy in Vietnam was remembered in their future struggle. Vietnam had their own designs on their future.

4 The lessons from China ring true in Vietnam Two states, two supporters…US in South, USSR in North. Proxy war that results in a war of independence as Vietnam will become a communist state.

5 Case Studies in De-Colonization Israel:  1917 Balfour Declaration  A British mandate after WWI  Remnant of the Ottoman state  Created its own state in 1947  Zionism and Palestinian outrage

6 De-Colonization in Egypt Egypt and Arab nationalism  Military leaders under Gamal A. Nasser seized power in 1952  Nasser became prime minister, a leader of pan-Arab nationalism  Egypt neutral in cold war, accepted aid from both powers  Nasser dedicated to ending imperialism and destroying state of Israel Suez crisis, 1956, greatly enhanced Nasser's prestige  Canal controlled by Britain; Nasser nationalized it to build Egypt's economy  Attacked by British, French, and Israeli forces, which retook canal  Both superpowers condemned military action, forced them to withdraw  Suez crisis divided United States and its allies in western Europe

7 De-Colonization in North Africa Forcing the French out of north Africa  France in Africa  1950s and 1960s, French granted independence to all its African colonies except Algeria  Two million French settlers in Algeria  Revolt of May 1954 was repressed by French; eight thousand Algerian Muslims died  War in Algeria, 1954-1962  Algerian nationalists pursued guerrilla warfare against French rule  By 1958, a half-million French soldiers were committed to the conflict  Atrocities on both sides; heavy civilian casualties; Algerian independence, 1962

8 Black Nationalism and Independence Growth of African nationalism  Began as grassroots protest against European imperialism  African nationalism celebrated Negritude (blackness), African roots Obstacles to African independence  Imperial powers assumed Africans were not ready for self- government  White settlers opposed black independence  Anticommunist fears justified interference in African politics  Economic and political instability often hampered post independent Africa

9 Transformation of South Africa  Gained independence in 1901, but denied civil rights to black population  South African economy strong, both mining and industry; prospered during WWII  Black workers demanded political change Apartheid: harsh legal system imposed in 1948, designed to keep races separate  87 peercent of South African land was for white residents, others classified by race  African National Congress, led by Nelson Mandela, launched campaign to protest apartheid  Severe government repression provoked international opposition after 1960  Black agitation and international sanctions brought end to apartheid in 1989  1994, under new constitution, Mandela won free election as first black president

10 African Troubles Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaire)  First prime minister, a Marxist, killed in a CIA-backed coup, 1961  Dictator Mobutu ruled from 1965 to 1997; plundered Zaire's economy  Mobutu ruled Zaire in dictatorial fashion and amassed huge personal fortune  Lawrence Kabila ousted Mobutu in 1997, changed country's name back to the Congo  Kabila killed, 2001; replaced by his son Joseph; no elections yet Developing economies of Africa  Africa has 10 percent of world's population but less than 1 percent of industrial output  Rich in minerals, raw materials, agricultural resources  Lacking in capital, technology, foreign markets, and managerial class  Rapid population growth compounds problems

11 Ghana (Gold Coast) first to gain independence, 1957  Kwame Nkrumah, nationalist leader, jailed and censored for political actions  Eventually released, Nkrumah became Ghana's first president, 1957  Side-by-side posters presented Queen Elizabeth and Nkrumah as equals, 1961 Anticolonial rebellion in Kenya  Violent clashes between native Kikuyu (Mau Mau) and European settlers after 1947  1930s and 1940s, Kikuyu pushed off farm lands, reduced to wage slaves  Labeling Mau Mau as communist subversives, Britain gained U.S. support  Kikuyu uprising crushed by superior arms in 1955; twelve thousand Africans killed  Political parties legalized, 1959; Kenya gained independence, 1963

12 Changes in Iran The Iranian revolution, 1979  CIA helped anticommunist Shah Mohammed Pahlavi gain power, 1953  Repressive rule overthrown by Islamist followers of Ayatollah Khomeini, 1979  Khomeini attacked United States for support of the shah  Militants held sixty-nine Americans hostage for 444 days; shut down U.S. military bases  Movement encouraged other Muslims to undertake terrorist actions

13 Islamofacism Islamism: revival of Muslim traditions  Reasserting Islamic values in Muslim politics  Resentment at European and American societies  Extremists embraced jihad, or duty to defend Islam from attack; justified terrorism



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