Presentation on theme: "Common goals = the unity of Africans elimination of colonialism and white supremacy from the continent. However, the meaning of leadership, kinds of government,"— Presentation transcript:
Common goals = the unity of Africans elimination of colonialism and white supremacy from the continent. However, the meaning of leadership, kinds of government, and regional interests differed
Educated in the United States. Leads the Pan-African Congress. Linked educated groups of Africans together. (activists, writers, artists) to fight for Independence in Africa.
Nkrumah was made president by the British. He then declared The Gold Coast colony independent in 1958. Renames it GHANA (refers back to ancient African Kingdom). 1960 declares Ghana a Republic.
“African Socialism” Combination of modern growth and traditional values. Seven Year Plan. Government controls all economic markets monopolies on crops. rural based economies to industrialization. 1964 declares himself President for Life -> dictatorship! While Nkrumah visits North Korea his military stages a coup in 1966 forces Nkrumah into exile. Dies in exile but buried in Ghana. Constitution written in 1993. Democracy today.
Patrice Lumumba =Born into a small and non- important tribe. WAS NOT educated in the West. Leads the Congolese National Movement Party. Takes part in All-African People's Conference in Accra, Ghana. Buddies with Nkrumah. June 23, 1960 Independence from the Belgians. Within a week of gaining independence from Belgium in 1960, the country became divided and Lumumba is killed.
For four years the country was torn apart by civil war, until Mobutu Sese Seko established himself as dictator, changed the country’s name to Zaire, and regained control. By the early 1990s, Zaire owed foreign banks nearly 9 billion dollars, while Mobutu’s personal wealth was estimated to be billions of dollars. Mobutu allowed elections in 1990, but refused to give up power. People were reduced to bartering for needed goods. In 1997, Mobutu was overthrown, and civil war broke out as several opposition groups led uprisings against the government. Laurent Kabila become president and changed the name to the DRC. He was assassinated in 2001. 2005: Constitution is written. President Joseph Kabila.
In the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, civil war has taken more than five million lives, children as young as six are routinely recruited by militias and taught to kill. It is estimated that children, most between 8 and 16 years old, make up 60% of combatants in the region. Women and children are raped on a daily basis. This way of life is not only seen in the DRC but in many countries such as Uganda and the Central Republic of Africa.
In the early 1890s= Britain took over land in Kenya’s highlands. Economic development- Britain spent millions to build a railroad from the Kenyan coast to Lake Victoria, but the project cost thousands of lives. After the railroad was completed in 1903, the British government encouraged its own citizens and other Europeans to settle in Kenya. The white settlers took over much of the land the Kikuyu had traditionally considered their own, and many Kikuyu were forced to work on farms run by settlers. In the 1950s, the Kikuyu briefly went to war against the British settlers in the Mau Mau Rebellion, but the British crushed all resistance. After Kenya gained independence in 1963, the Kikuyu leader Jomo Kenyatta became president, and the Kikuyu regained some of their farms in the central highlands.
In Kenya and in other countries that gained independence from European countries, there seems to be the same old story… Gain independence, a native gains power, is corrupt in power and in many cases is overthrown and the cycle begins again.
Union of South Africa 1910. Self-governing part of the British Empire. Made up of 4 British Colonies. Constitution= power to the Whites. African National Congress 1912. Get rid of practices based on race. Blacks want representation in South African Parliament 1960s, the ANC and Pan- African Congress (PAC) were banned.
In the 1940’s, the National Party came to power and ordered complete separation of the races. Independence =1961 Republic of South Africa. Continue to use racist policies.
Educated Tribal Elite joined the African National Congress. = Non-Violent Protests Later proposes a violent branch of the ANC. Protest in Sharpeville Nelson Mandela arrested and thrown in jail for 27 years.
1991 Apartheid is officially abolished. ANC allowed back. Mandela released from prison. 1993 Constitution written. Nelson Mandala is elected President. nonracial elections were held on April, 1994 1997 New Constitution dedicated to reforming the nation. Mandela steps down from power.
parliamentary democracy constitutional power is shared between the president and the Parliament. The national hero passes away on December 5, 2013.