4US INVOLVEMENT IN PUERTO RICO Puerto Rico LOSES independence when it is acquired by US during Spanish-American War. (Luis Munoz Rivera)Some Puerto Ricans initially welcome US. Later, calls for independence re-surface. US’s Foraker Act denies PR citizenship and self-determination.Puerto Ricans granted citizenship in Remains territory of US.
6CUBA AT FIRST, US intends Cuba to become independent. Teller Amendment states that US will not annex or control Cuba.US brings many improvements in health and sanitation to Cuba, but it does NOT give it full independence.US writes Platt Amendment.EFFECT? Cuba becomes a US protectorate.
7CUBA US seeks to control Cuba to protect American businesses there. Marines return to Cuba , 1912,US establishes naval bases at Guantanamo Bay.US troops back conservative Cuban leaders friendly to US and US business.
8What was the purpose of Platt Amendment? February 1901.It allowed the United States "the right to intervene for the preservation of Cuban independence, the maintenance of a government adequate for the protection of life, property, and individual liberty..."In effect until 1934
9What was the purpose of the Teller Amendment? Assure Cubans and European powers that American intervention was not an “imperial” land grab.stated that the United States, "hereby disclaims any disposition of intention to exercise sovereignty, jurisdiction, or control over said island except for pacification thereof, and asserts its determination, when that is accomplished, to leave the government and control of the island to its people."Was it observed?
10Compare and Contrast the Teller and the Platt Amendments
12MOTIVATING IDEAS OF IMPERIALISM ALTRUISMCOMMERCERACIAL SUPERIORITYNATIONAL HONOR“And one night it came to me this way-I don’t know how it was, but it came: (1) that we could not give them back to Spain – that would be cowardly and dishonorable; (2) that we could not turn them over to France or Germany-our commercial rivals in the Orient that would be bad business and discreditable; (3) that we could not leave them to themselves – the were unfit for self-government and they would soon have anarchy and misrule over there worse than Spain’s was; and (4) that there was nothing left for us to do but to take them all, and to educate they Filipinos, and uplift and civilize and Christianize them, and by God’s grace do the very best we could by them, as our fellowmen for whom Christ also died. And then I went to bed, and went to sleep and slept soundly.”-President McKinley; reflecting on what to do with the Philippines after the Spanish American war.
13Emilio Aguinaldo Father of Filipino independence Fought Spanish, Americans, and JapaneseLeads resistance against colonization
14PHILIPPINES RESIST EMPIRE How was the Philippines different from Cuba?Emilio AguinaldoGuerilla warRe-concentration campsAtrocitiesForced Americanization70,000 US troops sent to PhilippinesRemains protectorate until July 4, 1946.CASUALTY FIGURES:U.S.-- 4,234 dead and 2,818 wounded.Filipino -- 20,000 military dead and 200,000 civilians killed. (approximate numbers). Some historians estimate as many as 500,000 killed.
15US IN CHINA Why did the US support the Open Door? US wanted exports to China- especially to build railroads.2. US wanted to protect the “free market” abroad- US Secretary of State John Hay proposes “Open Door” policy = free market and continued Chinese independence3. Did not want US to fall behind European Powers- France, Germany, Britain, Japan, Russia, and Dutch are busy “carving” up China as its empire weakens
17Did the Open Door policy work? Sort of…Ignored by Great PowersBoxer RebellionUS now entangled in China
18“The Boxers, or "The Righteous and Harmonious Fists," were a religious society that had originally rebelled against the imperial government in Shantung in They practiced an animistic magic of rituals and spells which they believed made them impervious to bullets and pain. The Boxers believed that the expulsion of foreign devils would magically renew Chinese society and begin a new golden age. Much of their discontent, however, was focused on the economic scarcity of the 1890's. They were a passionate and confident group, full of contempt for authority and violent emotions.”Boxer Rebellion
19ELECTION OF 1900 PAGE 541The election is also a “referendum” on imperialism.What are the arguments for US imperialism?What are the arguments against it?What argument do you find persuasive? Why?