Presentation on theme: "Cultural Traditions in Architecture Throughout the World. (I-III) The World According to the Durability of Buildings. When Tradition Stops Innovation."— Presentation transcript:
Cultural Traditions in Architecture Throughout the World. (I-III) The World According to the Durability of Buildings. When Tradition Stops Innovation. A case study: Myanmar. When Tradition Inspires Innovation. A case study: Holland. Function and Culture in Architecture. Function and Shape in Architecture and in Time. Clues to Distinguish the Uses of a Building. Evaluation. Listen and decide which building it is. Shapes in Architecture. Plans and Fronts in Temples. Architecture and the Making of Spaces. Evaluation: Project Work 5- Architecture and Civilization. Architecture is a response to nature and also a compound of designs and building solutions. The selection of a settlement, the collecting of materials, the technical and creative solutions, the layout, the functions, the decorative features, etc. have a particular cultural identity... Anselm Pagès Muñoz
Cultural Traditions in Construction Throughout the World. I Identify the location of the pictures. A F 1 2 3 5 6 4 7 C D G B E
Cultural Traditions in Construction Throughout the World.II Which pictures correspond to the following descriptions? 1- Symmetrical building with a round dome in the centre of a square structure. 2- Tall structure made of steel and glass. 3- Diverse colourful domes. 4- Single massive round structure. 5- Symmetrical building with curved roofs on each floor. 6- Steep roofs with windowed gables. 7- Central dome in a symmetrical white building with slender towers at the sides. AC B D FGE
Cultural Traditions in Construction Throughout the World. III Colonial architecture. People from countries such as ________________, ___________, __________, have spread their traditional constructions and architectural symbols beyond their borders. Cuzco. Peru Regional styles of construction are like cultural symbols and have travelled as their people have. Some regions share a variety of styles that represent the different cultures that have settled in their territories. Sometimes these styles cohabitate, others are a quite incompatible. Where is this?
A– Chicago. USA. 20th Century. B– Stellenbosch. South Africa. 18th century C– Cuzco. Peru. 17th Century Which countries inspired these four examples of colonial architecture? - Evaluation: Find an example of construction in your town or city with strong influences from other countries or regions. D– Yangon Myanmar. 20th century
The World According to the Territories of the Different Countries. The World According to the Number of People Who Live in These Countries. The World According to the Durability of Buildings in the Different Countries. Territory size shows the proportion of worldwide population that lives in permanent structures living there. This is a map of estimated durable housing in the world. A durable dwelling is a structure that has been designed to last for many years. To live in a structure that is not durable suggests increased levels of insecurity for the inhabitants. (…), in Southeastern Africa only 29% of the population live in permanent structures. In Chad not even 3% of people have such housing security." ‘ http://www Worldmapper.The world as you've never seen it before.mht
When Tradition does not Stimulate Innovation. A case study: Myanmar.Myanmar. Wood has always been the most common material for building either huts, monasteries or palaces in Myanmar. “Building a house required the advice of an astrologer or soothsayer. (…) He inspected the earth taken from the foundation pit and determined if the site was chosen correctly. He defined the lucky day and hour to begin the building and selected wood or posts. A popular belief is that this selection was absolutely necessary because a tree trunk could be male, female or neutral(…)” Mirrored in Wood. Irene Moilanen & Sergey S Ozhegoh. White Lotus Where is this?
Dutch people know about the disastrous effects that flooding water can cause and are determined to find the right solutions. Today they have the largest and most modern infrastructures on earth. http://edcwwwcr.usgs.gov/earthshots/slow/tableofcontentshttp://edcwwwcr.usgs.gov/earthshots/slow/tableofcontents Activity: Find out about the mentioned modern solutions. The Netherlands are among the regions where building durable dwellings seems most difficult: The frequently flooded lands need constant drainage. And yet, it is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. Their people have been reclaiming land from the sea since the medieval ages. Crews of men and horses, windmills, mechanical pumps and all sort of approaches have been applied in this struggle to prevent flooding either from the river Rhine or from the sea. When Tradition Inspires Innovation. A case study: The NetherlandsThe Netherlands Where is this? What is it for?
Until the nineteenth century, Iranians did not use chairs. They normally sat cross-legged on the floor, preferably on a carpet with pillows. In the twentieth century, furniture became fashionable and now every family of any standing has a room stuffed with uncomfortable furniture for receiving important visitors. When the guests leave, family members relax on the carpet. An Iranian home is one where any room, with the exception of those used for cooking and bodily functions, can be used for any social purpose — eating, sleeping, entertainment, business, or whatever else one can conceive. One spreads a dinner cloth, and it is a dining room. After dinner, the cloth is removed, cotton mattresses are spread, and the room becomes a bedchamber. http://www.everyculture.com/Ge-It/Iran.html What are the bodily function rooms? Do Iranians like Western furniture? Do Iranians have special dining rooms? Bathrooms, toilets, washrooms. No, they don’t. Function and Culture in Architecture. A case study: IranIran Is this an Iranian bedroom? Yes, why not?
Function and Shape in Architecture. Any building or structure will be considered to be adequate depending on how it meets the requirements it was designed for. How would you classify the following buildings? - Homes - Hospitals - Temples - Banks - Big stores - Factories - Schools - Theatres - Sport pavilions - Warehouses - Shops - Block of flats. These pictures correspond to constructions with clear functional differences. Can you sort them out? ResidentialCommercialIndustrialInstitutionalMonumental and religious Recreational Residential Industrial Monumental Commercial Recreational Monumental Institutional 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Function and Shape in Time. People’s needs and means change. Constructions with similar functions have evolved through time. Some old constructions have been replaced by new ones. New functions have also caused the appearance of new buildings designed to meet the new needs. Aesthetics have also changed enormously. Look at these constructions, see their function and guess the time they were built 4000BC 1 3 45 6 1939 1764-74 TODAY O 1134 TIME LINE. 2 5 AD 120 ChartresPantheon Rome Cheops Egypt Power station London Guggenheim museum Bilbao Residential Bath, England Activity: Choose 6 new buildings and place them in a time line.
Clues to Distinguish the Uses of a Building. ResidentialCommercial Industrial InstitutionalMonumentalRecreational - Block of flats. - Homes. -… - Shop. - Big stores - Butchery - Bakery - Grocery - … - Warehouse - Factory. - Distillery -… -School. -Hospitals. -Banks -Post offices -Train stations. -…. - Museum. - Churches - Cementiries. - … -Football stadium. - Film theatres. - Swimming pool - … -Small windows. -Curtains -… -Shop or display - windows. - … -Large doors. - … -Large buildings. - … -Outstanding. -… -Easy access to crowds of people. -…
Glasgow Central station. ScotlandEstació de França. Barcelona Library of Alexandria. EgyptGlasgow Central Station.Estació de França. Barcelona
Listen and Decide the Building It Is. 1- This is a last call. Passengers flying to Athens, please proceed immediately to gate number 8. Mall Sports Pavilion AirportTheatre Art gallery House 2 2- My bedroom is on the first floor next to the bathroom. 3- Yes, madam. The shoe department is at the end of this walkway. 4- I’ve heard that it is an excellent play. There is a matinee performance that starts at 2 pm. 5- And the score is 21 to 17. The local team is playing a fantastic game. 6- Mr Reynolds is the head of the marketing department. 7- I like these Van Gogh paintings very much. I will ask for a replica in the shop. 1 3 4 5 6 7 Office building
Listen and Decide the Building It Is. MallFootball stadiumAirportTheatreSchoolHospitalChurch 1-There are different constructions around a parking lot. It has shopping departments, sport facilities, cinemas and an arcade. 2- It has a stage and a hall with rows of seats. There are also changing rooms for the performing actors. 6- It has check in areas, lounges, shops and gates. 3- It has rows of pews where attendants seat and pray during ceremonies. 5- It has a central field with terracing all around. Supporters seat on the terracing and cheer their teams. 4- It has classrooms, work rooms, a library and sport facilities. 7- It has wards with bedrooms and surgery rooms. Patients go to each ward according to their specific illness. 1
Shapes in Architecture. Most constructions are multi shaped. They can be symmetrical or asymmetrical. They can be part of larger compositions or simply be isolated in the middle of an empty space. oval conic cylinder triangular rectangular circle square
TEMPLES: PLANS AND FRONTS. Can you match them up and put them in chronological order? Source drawings:Bill Risebero
TEMPLES: PLANS AND FRONTS. This is their chronological order A F Greek Temple 703 BC 43 BC Hagia Sofia 6th century Pisa Cathedral 1063–13th century Cordoba mosque 9th and 10th centuries. Notre Dame. Paris 1163. Saint Peter. Rome 1506 - 1615
__________, ___________ and the design of ________ go along with aesthetics. Our likes and dislikes often determine our approach to architecture and cities. However, good architecture and urbanism combine ______________and ______________ in a larger context where the nature and ______________ play decisive roles. Materials function culturestructures decoration shapes Architecture and the Making of Spaces. Which are the ingredients or requirements?
Evaluation: Project work 1- Identify a landmark construction in your town. A landmark can be a house, a structure or a monument. Bring a picture. - Describe it: What is it? How old is it? What is it like? - What is its function? - What sort of decorative elements has it got? - What cultural references can you distinguish. - Draw the plan and the front of the house. - Distinguish the geometrical forms. - What has it got around? 2- Has it got any interesting story. Ask about the story of a landmark, a family building, etc. What is its main function? When was it built? Who was the architect? Why did they build there? What happened? 3- Collect the photos brought by the students and prepare a photo quiz. Prepare a slide projection with the town pictures. Can you locate these buildings? Some urban furniture and parts of buildings can also be included. Prepare the photos as if they were cards and ask students to arrange them in chronological order. What are their styles?