3 I. Japan: The Imperial Age Taika, Nara, and Heian (7th to 9th centuries)Borrowing from China at heightA. Crisis at Nara and the Shift to Heian (Kyoto)Taika reformsCopy Chinese style of ruleBureaucracyOpposed by aristocracy, Buddhist monksCapital to Heian (Kyoto)Abandons Taika reformsAristocracy restored to powerB. Ultracivilized: Court Life in the Heian EraCourt cultureCodes of behaviorAesthetic enjoymentPoetryWomen and men take partLady Murasaki, Tale of GenjiJapan in the Imperial and Warlord Periods
4 I. Japan: The Imperial Age C. The Decline of Imperial PowerFujiwara familyDominate governmentCooperate with BuddhistsElite cultD. The Rise of the Provincial Warrior EliteRegional lords (bushi)Fortress basesSemi-independentSamuraiWarrior class emergesMartial arts esteemedSpecial codeFamily honorDeath rather than defeatSeppuku or hari-kiriPeasants lose status, freedomSalvationist Buddhism
5 II. The Era of Warrior Dominance By the 11th and 12th centuriesFamily rivalries dominateTaira, MinamotoA. The Declining Influence of China838, Japanese embassies to China stoppedGempei Wars1185, Minamoto victoriousBakufu, military governmentKamakura, capital
7 II. The Era of Warrior Dominance B. The Breakdown of Bakufu Dominance and the Age of the WarlordsYoritomoMinamoto leaderAssassinates relativesDeath brings succession struggleHojo familyMinamoto, emperor figureheadsAshikaga TakuajiMinamoto14th century, overthrows Kamakura ruleAshikaga Shogunate establishedEmperor driven from KyotoStruggle weakens all authority, civil war among Ashikaga factions300 statesRuled by warlords (daimyo)
8 II. The Era of Warrior Dominance C. Toward Barbarism?Military Division and Social ChangeWarfare becomes more brutalDaimyo support commerceD. Artistic Solace for a Troubled AgeZen BuddhismImportant among elitePoint of contact with China
9 III. Korea: Between China and Japan The Korean Peninsula During the Three Kingdoms EraSeparate, but greatly influencedAncestors from Siberia, ManchuriaBy 4th century B.C.E., farming, metalworkingA. Tang Alliances and the Conquest of Korea109 B.C.E., Choson kingdom conquered by HanSilla, PaekcheKoguryo peopleResist Chinese dominanceSinification increases after fall of the HanBuddhism an important vehicleB. Sinification: The Tributary LinkSilla, Koryo dynasties ( )Peak of Chinese influencebut political independence
10 Jogyesa Temple is the center for Zen Buddhism in Korea and sits in the heart of Seoul.
11 III. Korea: Between China and Japan C. The Sinification of Korean Elite CultureSilla capital, Kumsongcopied Tang citiesBuddhism favoredD. Civilization for the FewAristocracy most influenced by Chinese cultureAll others serve themE. Koryo Collapse, Dynastic RenewalRevoltsCaused by labor, tax burdensWeaken Silla, Koryo governments1231, Mongol invasionFollowed by turmoil1392, Yi dynasty foundedLasts until 1910
12 IV. Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam Chinese push southto Red River valleyVietsRetain distinctivenessQinRaid into Vietnam, 220s B.C.E.Commerce increasedViets conquer Red River lordsMerge with Mon-Khmer, TaiCulture distinct from ChinaWomen generally have higher statusA. Conquest and SinificationHanExpand, Vietnam becomes a tributaryfrom 111 B.C.E., direct controlChinese culture systematically introducedSouth China and Vietnam on the Eve of the Han Conquest
14 IV. Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam B. Roots of ResistanceResistance from aristocracy, peasantsWomen participate39 C.E., Revolt of Trung sistersC. Winning Independence and Continuing Chinese InfluencesDistance from China helps resistanceIndependence by 939until 19th centuryLe Dynasty ( )Using Chinese-style bureaucracy
15 IV. Between China and Southeast Asia: The Making of Vietnam D. The Vietnamese Drive to the SouthIndianized Khmer, ChamsDefeated, Viets expand into Mekong delta regionE. Expansion and DivisionHanoiFar from frontiersCultural divisions develop following intermarriage with Chams, KhmersNguyen dynastyCapital at Hue, by late 1500sChallenge Trinh in NorthRivalry until 18th century
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