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The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea and Vietnam

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1 The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Japan, Korea and Vietnam
Chapter 13 EQ: How does Chinese civilization influence the development of Japan, Korea and Vietnam in the post-classical era?

2 The Spread The term used to describe this spread of Chinese culture is SINIFICATION. Naturally, all three of these civilizations (Korea, Vietnam and Japan) are China’s immediate neighbors and greatly emulated everything China did For all three groups, the key force of spread of Chinese culture was Buddhism Japan followed, though, a process of selective borrowing strictly during the 5th and 6th centuries of the Tang Dynasty

3 Early Japan (Before Sinification)
Just like China, Japanese society emerged into uji (clans) The Yamato clan grew to power in southern Honshu around 500 AD – this family established Japan’s first and only dynasty Shinto – Japanese religion, worshiping the forces of nature; expresses harmony with ones surroundings Korea was an important bridge to Japan from mainland China

4 Japan: Imperial Age 3 periods: Taika, Nara and Heian, took place between the 7th and 9th centuries Japanese selective borrowing from China peaked, though Shinto beliefs would remain central to Japanese society 646 - Taika Reforms First premise was to revamp the bureaucracy of Japan along Chinese lines, with aristocrats and intellectuals learning Chinese and Confucianism (difficult) The common people took to Buddhism, with great awe and reverence, which distracted the efforts of establishing intellectual order An association between Shinto spirits (kami) and Buddhist “deities” (even though there aren’t supposed to be any) emerged

5 The Taika Failure The reforms failed…the aristocracy returned to Japanese traditions…the peasantry loved Buddhism and turned it into ZEN…the emperor’s power slowly waned into the hands of landowners (daimyo) who had control over the peasantry Buddhism’s influence almost claimed the throne of Japan…but the emperor fled and moved the imperial court from Nara to Heian, thus abandoning the Taika reforms The aristocracy (daimyo) began to dominate the central government, raised their own armies and began to divide Japanese land amongst themselves

6 The Emperor at Heian (Kyoto)
The power of the emperor has begun to erode after the flight to Heian, though he still is a symbol of Japanese society While at Heian, the nobility lived isolated from the rest of the people and by strict codes of behavior (but not immune from soap opera stuff) Despite isolation, the court was active in intellectual and literary pursuits…kanji was created to simplify Chinese script…haiku was all rage Women were expected to be as acculturated as men…Lady Murasaki Shikibu (the world’s first recognized female author and the Danielle Steel of her time) wrote the Tales of Genji (world’s first novel) detailing life at Heian “Although I am not sure, that he will not be coming, when the locusts shrilly call, I go to the door and wait”

7 Decline of Imperial Power…rise of Feudalism
By the 9th century, the pleasure loving emperor lost control to landowners…The Fujiwara clan dominated political power in Japan and married into the throne at Heian Combined with Buddhist religious forces (yes, they owned land and were not TRULY Buddhist) the Fujiwara slowly took over power of Japan and achieved cooperation with the peasant masses already entranced by ZEN The Fujiwara employed the use of esoteric Buddhist teachings involving magic, salvation thru prayer and meditation (cult worship) to distract peasants and the court However, other clans/landowners (daimyo) would slowly become resistant to this Buddhist domination

8 Feudal Japan (overhead) 
Feudalism – system of rule based on lords who own land, but owe military support to a greater lord (shogun) Landowners in Feudal Japan were called daimyo The emperor of Japan was just a figure, the shogun (supreme military commander) had the real power Each daimyo had samurai (warriors) who followed their own code, bushido If a samurai failed in his goals or broke the bushido code, he was expected to commit suicide (seppuku)

9 Results of Feudalism Chinese influenced waned with imperial power…by 838 CE Japan discontinued political contact with Tang China Japan would be plunged into a long age of civil war…fighting amongst daimyo and the warrior families (Fujiwara, Minamoto, Tara, Hojo, Tachibana) supporting Heian…the Genpei wars of the late 12th C resulted in the Minamoto family winning and establishing a military government (bakufu)…the ending results of these civil wars was a military dictatorship known as the Shogunate Japan would spend the next years controlled by 3 major military Shogunates (Kamakura, Ashikaga, and Tokugawa) with most of the earlier Shogunates plagued by constant warfare

10 Korea…between China and Japan
As mentioned previously, Korea served as a bridge between China and Japan They still managed, despite this influence, to create an independent cultural identity (descendant of nomads from Siberia and Manchuria) They had a kingdom, Choson, that was eventually conquered by the Han…Koreans fled to the North (Koguryo) and resisted the Chinese controlled south (Silla and Paekche) Korea also began a process of adopting Chinese culture (Sinification) and Buddhism again was the key element of transferring culture…though the Koguryo did not fully adopt Chinese style rule (noble resistance)

11 The Tang take Korea Continuing political disunity amongst the 3 Korea kingdoms allowed the Tang to unify with the Silla and conquer Korea by the late 7th century (668) The Tang received tribute from Korea and left the Silla to rule over Korea The Korean peninsula remained an autonomous state until the 20th century when the Japanese annexed their territory

12 Increased Sinification…decline and changes…
Under the Silla and Koryo dynasties ( ), Chinese influences were dominant…Tang systems of rule were copied, Chinese art and innovations were brought to Korea The Silla modeled their imperial system after the Tang…built cities w/secluded parts for the imperial families and wealthy aristocrats, schools with Confucian teaching and exams, Buddhist monasteries and temples Aristocracy dominated life in Korea…all other common people were subject to the will/control of the elite (virtual slaves, uneducated in Chinese ways, unable to become artisans or artists) This domination caused periodic revolts from the peasantry…coupled with Mongol invasions in the 13th and 14th centuries, the power of the Silla and Koryo weakened When the Yi family came to power in 1392, they would restore the aristocratic dominance that would last until the 20th century

13 China and SE Asia: The Making of Vietnam
The region of the Red River valley was home to the Nam Viet (people of the south) civilization, an already distinct culture called the “southern barbarians” by the early Chinese dynasties The Q’in raided the Vietnamese during their short period of existence and began a relationship with the Viet rulers…this opened a system of exchange in which the Chinese swapped silk for pearls, shells, other items from the sea and exotic woods Eventually the Viets removed the Q’in feudal rulers…They adopted the Q’in feudal system and began in intermarry with Khmers, Chams and Tai peoples to solidify their power Their language or society was not changed by early Chinese contact…strong family ties (nuclear family) in villages…Viet society gave women more freedom and influence in politics, economics, etc. compared to Chinese society

14 Conquest, Sinification, and Resistance
The Han dynasty secured Nam Viet as a tribute state, then conquered and governed it directly by 111 BCE…Chinese culture was introduced…the Han system of schooling and examination was imposed on them…a scholar gentry emerged that assimilated some elements of Chinese culture Vietnamese agriculture benefited as Chinese techniques in farming increased production (and increased population) Vietnamese resistance to Han rule increased as cultures came into conflict (Han still considered Vietnam “barbaric”)…Vietnamese began to mock Chinese teachings…aristocratic and peasant revolts erupted against further Chinese influence…Women played a large roll in revolts as they were beginning to feel subjugated by Confucian rules (Trung sisters)…as a result women continued to maintain their independence

15 Vietnamese independence and expansion
By 939, Vietnam was largely independent from Chinese rule and remained that way until imperialism in the 1800s A dynasty system emerged (Le Dynasty) that modeled its bureaucratic rule like China…however, the scholar gentry never gained dominant power…much power was held at local levels as rulers identified more with village rulers and the peasantry rather than the central authority…Buddhism also held control over the common people (similar to the early Japanese problem) The Viet expanded southward over the centuries, successfully conquering the various peoples of Cambodia, Laos and southern Vietnam (Khmer and Cham) The northern Vietnamese lost control over southern Vietnamese peoples as they intermarried with the Khmer and Cham peoples…regional military commanders took power and the Nguyen dynasty established a southern capital at Hue…this conflict between North and South would continue through to modern day

16 This Week… Tuesday: Core Activity
AC, see website for copy of chart and instructions Wednesday/Thursday: DBQ – Comparing Feudalism Friday: TEST, C13 Notes due

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