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World War I AP US Hamer (with help from Susan Pojer)

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1 World War I AP US Hamer (with help from Susan Pojer)

2 MAIN Causes of World War I

3 Militarism The development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy. Caused by the increase in imperialism and nationalism. By 1890, Germany had the strongest army in Europe and England had the strongest navy.

4 Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s Increase in Defense Expenditures France10% Britain13% Russia39% Germany73% Militarism & Arms Race

5 Alliances By 1907, there were two major defense systems in Europe: The Triple Entente (the Allied Powers) –France, Britain, and Russia The Triple Alliance (the Central Powers) –Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy –(Italy left this group in 1915 and the Ottoman Turks joined in late 1914)

6 1.Three Emperors’ League (1873) Ger, A-H, Rus. 2.Dual Alliance (1879) Ger. & A-H 3.Triple Alliance (1882) Ger, A-H, It. 4.Reinsurance Treaty (1887) restore relations between Ger. & Rus. 5.Franco-Russian Alliance (1894) 6.British-Japanese Alliance (1902) 7.The Entente Cordiale (1904) Br. & Fr. Tensions & Conflicts:

7 8.First Moroccan Crisis (1905) 9.Russo-Japanese War (1905) 10.The Anglo-Russian Convention (1907) Persia 11.Triple Entente (1907) Br, Fr, Rus 12.The Bosnian Crisis of Second Moroccan Crisis (1911) 14.The First Balkan War (1912) 15.The Second Balkan War (1913) Tensions & Conflicts:

8 Europe in 1914

9 The Balkans in 1914

10 Imperialism Dominating another country or culture, usually for economic or military gain Through the colony building practices of imperialism, the world was more connected as England was no longer a single country but the British Empire Cause rivalries among countries Caused many countries to increase the size of their navy

11 Colonial Rivalries: Africa in 1914

12 Colonial Rivalries: Asia in 1914

13 The British Empire in 1914

14 The Balkans in 1878

15 The Balkan Wars:

16 Nationalism A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation This concept grew in the 1800’s Caused rivalries among countries Caused countries like Russia to feel a link to other countries with their Slavic culture like Serbia

17 The “Spark”

18 Archduke Franz Ferdinand & His Family

19 The Assassination: Sarajevo June 1914

20 Gavrilo Princip The Assassin:

21 Who’s To Blame?

22 The Dominoes Fall… Then: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Russia felt that is should support its Slavic brother (Serbia) Germany supported Austria-Hungary by declaring war on Russia and then France Germany invaded Belgium and Great Britain declared war on Germany

23 War in Europe Soldiers mobilized quickly from all sides Germany used the Schlieffen plan to move through Belgium to attack France –The plan was to finish France in 6 weeks and then focus on Russia –This didn’t work and Germany ended up involved in a 2 front war

24 Multi Front War The Western Front: –Trenches –Germany vs. England and France –More horrible than previous wars by a lot The Eastern Front: –More mobile –Germany and Austria Hungary vs. Russia –Russia has a revolution and drops out in 1917 Other Fronts: –Italy vs. A-H; Middle East; Africa; Colonial Holdings in Asia (Japan was an Allied Power)

25 A Multi-Front War

26 America Joins the Allies

27 The Sinking of the Lusitania Germany declared unrestricted submarine warfare in the Spring of 1917 America was already upset by the deaths of Americans on Allied ships

28 Election of 1916 Democrats – Wilson again “He kept us out of war” Republicans – Charles Evan Hughes Progressives – TR refused to run and split Republicans again

29 1916 Election Results DemocratWoodrow Wilson277 elec49.2%pop RepublicanCharles E. Hughes254 elec46.1% pop

30 The Zimmerman Telegram Germany wanted Mexico to join the war and fight America – promised Mexico supplies England intercepted the telegram and told America

31 The Yanks Are Coming!

32 Americans in the Trenches

33 America Mobilizes for War

34 1. Enlistment

35 The Most Famous Recruitment Poster

36 Enlist Now

37 For Big and Little Soldiers

38 The Singingest War Ever!

39 Results of Enlistment: 1917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of ,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat). 400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units. 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units. 11,000 women enlisted in the navy and 269 in the marines – non-combat positions

40 Expansion of the Federal Government

41 Council of National Defense War Industries Board – Bernard Baruch Food Administration – Herbert Hoover Railroad Administration – William McAdoo National War Labor Board – W. H. Taft & Frank P. Walsh

42 U.S. Food Administration Check out the amazing WWI food propaganda posters on my front wall!

43 U.S. Food Administration

44 National War Garden Commission U.S. School Garden Army

45 U.S. Shipping Board

46 U. S. Fuel Administration

47 Results of This New Organization of the Economy? 1.Unemployment virtually disappeared. 2.Expansion of “big government.” 3.Excessive government regulations in economy 4.Some gross mismanagement -> overlapping jurisdictions. 5.Close cooperation between public and private sectors. 6.Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.

48 Women during WWI

49 YWCA – The Blue Triangle The Girls They Left Behind Do Their Bit!

50 Munitions Work Although many more women went to work in munitions factories during WWII than WWI, they did make a significant contribution during the first World War.

51 Women Used In Recruitment Hello, Big Boy!

52 Even Grandma Buys Liberty Bonds National League for Woman’s Service

53 The Red Cross - Greatest Mother in the World

54 Women’s Suffrage Wilson finally agrees to push for a suffrage amendment as “a vitally necessary war measure” after suffragettes protested in front of the White House (watch Iron Jawed Angels!)

55 African Americans during WWI

56 Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1 “Great Migration.” 1916 – 1919: 70,000 African- Americans move North War industries work. Enlistment in segregated units.

57 The Great Migration

58 True Sons of Freedom

59 African-Americans on a Troop Ship Headed for France

60 “Rescuing a Negro During the Race Riots in Chicago”, 1919

61 Immigrants during WWI

62 The “Flag of Liberty” Represents All of Us!

63 Wartime Propaganda

64 The Committee of Public Information (George Creel) America’s “Propaganda Minister” Anti-Germanism. Selling American Culture.

65 “Remember Belgium” and the “Mad Brute”

66 Beat Back the “Hun”

67 The Western Front: A “War of Attrition”

68 The Western Front

69 Trench Warfare

70 “No Man’s Land” Trench Warfare

71  German offensive.  Each side had 500,000 casualties.  German offensive.  Each side had 500,000 casualties. Verdun – February, 1916

72  60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.  Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.  60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.  Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months. The Somme – July, 1916

73 War IsHELL !!

74 Sacrifices in War

75 Krupp’s “Big Bertha” Gun

76 The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology

77 New Weapons of WWI - Tank The tank was invented to roll across no man’s land and over enemy trenches. The British Mark I was the first successful tank used on the battlefield. The Americans also developed a smaller, two man tank, the FT- 17

78 French Renault Tank

79 New Weapons of WWI - U-Boat The U-Boat (or unterseeboot in German) was the German submarine used in WWI. They were very effective at blockading England for a time and destroyed both English (and American) Navy and merchant vessels.

80 U-Boats

81 Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats September 1916-April 1917May 1917-June 1918

82 New Weapons of WWI - Fighter Planes and Zeppelins The new technology of the airplane saw its first use in battle during WWI. Originally used as reconnaissance, then fighters, by the end of the war they were also used as bombers. The Zeppelin blimps were also used as spy ships and bombers during the war.

83 New Weapons of WWI - Fighter Planes The Red Baron’s Fokker Tri Plane

84 Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “RedBaron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br. The Flying Aces of World War I

85 Curtis-Martin U. S. Aircraft Plant

86 Looking for the “Red Baron?”

87 The Zeppelin

88 Grenade Launchers Flame Throwers

89 Poison Gas Machine Gun Poison Gas and Machine Guns

90 New Weapons of WWI - Poison Gas Chlorine gas was first used by the Germans at the Second Battle of Ypres in April of Phosgene gas which was more deadly was also used after this. Mustard gas which caused blindness and often death from pneumonia was invented and used in the last years of the war.

91 New Weapons of WWI - Poison Gas British tear gas casualties British troops in gas masks at Ypres 1917 German soldier and horse in gas masks

92 Poison Gas Casualties of WWI Nation Gas casualties (estimated) FatalNon-fatal Russia50,000400,000 Germany10,000190,000 France8,000182,000 Britain8,000181,000 Austria-Hungary 3,00097,000 USA1,50071,500 Italy4,50055,000 Total85,000 (3% of combat deaths) 1,176,500

93 WWI Ends

94 Germany’s Spring Offensive Germany plans an offensive for the Spring of 1918 in the hopes that they can beat the Allies before too many Americans arrive Failure because: –Put all of their forces into this –All of the best troops were put in special units on the front line (stormtroopers) –No plan for victory

95 The Central Powers Fall On November 3, 1918, Austria-Hungary surrendered. On November 9, 1918, socialist leaders took over the German capital and established a German republic; the Kaiser gave up the throne. Finally, Germany agreed to sign an armistice (truce). –On the eleventh hour of the eleventh day in the eleventh month of 1918, World War I was over.

96 The War to End All Wars? World War I was the bloodiest war in history to that time. –22 million were dead – more than half of them civilians. –20 million people were wounded –10 million became refugees. The U.S.A. lost 48,000 men in battle with another 62,000 dying of disease. More than 200,000 Americans were wounded.

97 Major Players of WWI Primary Allied Powers Great Britain France Italy Russia (until 1917) United States (after 1917) Primary Central Powers Germany Austria Hungary Ottoman Turks Bulgaria

98 The Aftermath of WWI After Germany signed an armistice in 1918, negotiations began: The peace treaty was dictated by the leaders of the four remaining Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Italy, and America. –Russia was not allowed to enter into the treaty because they had dropped out of the war (and because they were communist). –This was one of the first major occasions where only the victors sat at the negotiation table.

99 Wilson’s 14 Points President Wilson of the United States came up with a set of ideas known as the 14 points. 1.No secret treaties between nations 2.Freedom of the seas for all 3.Lower or abolish tariffs between nations for free trade 4.Reduce arms stockpiles 5.Colonial policies should take the interest of the colonial people into consideration as well as the imperialist powers

100 Wilson’s 14 Points cont. Points 6-13 dealt with establishing boundaries in Europe along ethnic identities when larger nations were broken up. 14.Establish a League of Nations to provide a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances before turning to war

101 Problem! All the European leaders rejected Wilson’s 14 points. They wanted to make Germany pay and Wilson was left fighting for only the League of Nations.

102 Treaty of Versailles The final treaty established new nations out of the boundaries of old nations, especially Austria- Hungary. Germany could not maintain an army. Germany also had to return/give land to France. Germany had to pay $33 billion to the Allies in war reparations Germany had to follow the war-guilt clause in which Germany had to take full responsibility for the war. Germany was stripped of colonial possessions. A League of Nations was formed.

103 New Nations &Territories After WW I

104 Results of the Treaty of Versailles The U.S. never joined the League of Nations and the League could not deliver the peace that Wilson hoped for. The demands placed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles were too great. –They were humiliated and forced to pay more money than they could possibly come up with. –The economic and moral disasters in Germany caused by the Treaty of Versailles would set the country up for a dictator who would lead them into WWII.

105 Problems for Wilson Imperialist leaders in Europe weren’t as idealist as Wilson European leaders were worried about threats from Communism Isolationist senators at home said they wouldn’t pass the League of Nations – this gave the Europeans more power at Versailles

106 Problems for Wilson Allied countries wanted territory –France wanted the Rhineland and the Saar Basin –Italy wanted regions previously taken by A-H –Japan wanted part of China and Pacific islands Isolationists in America still refused to sign the treaty

107 The Beginning of the End for Wilson Wilson collapsed in Colorado during his tour to take the League to the people (9/25/1919) –He then had a stroke Lodge smelled blood and tried to strip the treaty, but Wilson was still able to get loyal Democrats to vote against it Because of this in-fighting, the treaty never passed and died America NEVER joins the League of Nations

108 Election of 1920 Republicans nominated Ohioan, Senator Warren G. Harding with Calvin Coolidge as his VP Democrats nominated Ohioan, Governor James M. Cox with FDR as his running mate! Harding wins (with a landslide) in an attempt to “return to normalcy”… –“I like Ike” after WWII is the same thing

109 The 1920 Election

110 Attacks on Civil Liberties at Home

111 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 1.Espionage Act 1.Espionage Act– 1917 forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military. ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail. fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.

112 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Sedition Act 2.Sedition Act – 1918 You couldn’t speak out against your country It was a crime to speak against purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of productionof things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.

113 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Schenck v. US 3.Schenck v. US– in ordinary times the mailing of the leaflets would have been protected by the 1 st Amendment. - BUT, every act of speech must be judged according to the circumstances in which it was spoken. -The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic.[Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes] - If an act of speech posed a clear and present danger, then Congress had the power to restrain such speech.

114 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Abrams v. US 4.Abrams v. US– majority ruling --> said that the leafletters were inciting violence - cited Holmes’ “Clear and present danger” doctrine. - Holmes & Brandeis dissented: The best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, denying that a “silly leaflet” published by an “unknown man” constituted such a danger.

115 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 5. Post-war labor unrest:  Labor Unions promised not to strike during the war, so they all began to strike after the war. Too much at once  Coal Miners Strike of  Steel Strike of  Boston Police Strike of 1919.

116 Anti-LaborAnti-Labor “If Capital & Labor Don’t Pull Together” – Chicago Tribune

117 Consequences of Labor Unrest “While We Rock the Boat” – Washington Times

118 Coal Miners’ Strike “Keeping Warm” – Los Angeles Times

119 Steel Strike “Coming Out of the Smoke” – New York World

120 The “Red Scare” The Red scare was the first widespread Anti-Communist movement in America Targeted towards labor unions –Calling unions “communist” was a great way to take away their power “What a Year Has Brought Forth” – NY World

121 “Red Scare” -- Anti-Bolshevism “Put Them Out & Keep Them Out” – Philadelphia Inquirer

122 Boston Police Strike “He gives aid & comfort to the enemies of society” – Chicago Tribune

123 Boston Police Strike “Striking Back” – New York Evening World

124 Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans  Claimed to be against the rd. International goal --> promote worldwide communism.  Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer (The Case Against the Reds)  Palmer Raids “The Red Scare”:

125 “Red Scare” – Palmer Raids Bombs were sent to the houses of a number of government officials including Attorney General Palmer Palmer claimed it was the communists A. Mitchell Palmer’s Home Bombed, 1920

126 Police Arrest “Suspected Reds’ in Chicago, 1920 “Red Scare” – Palmer Raids Palmer Raids were a series of raids on the houses and offices of suspected “radicals” to search for evidence that they were involved in the bombing No evidence, plenty of arrests


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