3MilitarismThe development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy.Caused by the increase in imperialism and nationalism.By 1890, Germany had the strongest army in Europe and England had the strongest navy.
4Militarism & Arms Race Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.18701880189019001910191494130154268289398Increase in Defense ExpendituresFrance10%Britain13%Russia39%Germany73%
5Alliances By 1907, there were two major defense systems in Europe: The Triple Entente (the Allied Powers)France, Britain, and RussiaThe Triple Alliance (the Central Powers)Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy(Italy left this group in 1915 and the Ottoman Turks joined in late 1914)
7Tensions & Conflicts: 1873-1914 First Moroccan Crisis (1905)Russo-Japanese War (1905)The Anglo-Russian Convention (1907) PersiaTriple Entente (1907) Br, Fr, RusThe Bosnian Crisis of 1908Second Moroccan Crisis (1911)The First Balkan War (1912)The Second Balkan War (1913)
10ImperialismDominating another country or culture, usually for economic or military gainThrough the colony building practices of imperialism, the world was more connected as England was no longer a single country but the British EmpireCause rivalries among countriesCaused many countries to increase the size of their navy
16Nationalism A devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation This concept grew in the 1800’sCaused rivalries among countriesCaused countries like Russia to feel a link to other countries with their Slavic culture like Serbia
22The Dominoes Fall… Then: Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia Russia felt that is should support its Slavic brother (Serbia)Germany supported Austria-Hungary by declaring war on Russia and then FranceGermany invaded Belgium and Great Britain declared war on Germany
23War in Europe Soldiers mobilized quickly from all sides Germany used the Schlieffen plan to move through Belgium to attack FranceThe plan was to finish France in 6 weeks and then focus on RussiaThis didn’t work and Germany ended up involved in a 2 front war
24Multi Front War The Western Front: The Eastern Front: Other Fronts: TrenchesGermany vs. England and FranceMore horrible than previous wars by a lotThe Eastern Front:More mobileGermany and Austria Hungary vs. RussiaRussia has a revolution and drops out in 1917Other Fronts:Italy vs. A-H; Middle East; Africa; Colonial Holdings in Asia (Japan was an Allied Power)
39Results of Enlistment: 1917 – Selective Service Act 24,000,000 men registered for the draft by the end of 1918.4,800,000 men served in WW1 (2,000,000 saw active combat).400,000 African-Americans served in segregated units.15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts, messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.11,000 women enlisted in the navy and 269 in the marines – non-combat positions
47Results of This New Organization of the Economy? Unemployment virtually disappeared.Expansion of “big government.”Excessive government regulations in economySome gross mismanagement -> overlapping jurisdictions.Close cooperation between public and private sectors.Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged groups.
76The War of the Industrial Revolution: New Technology
77New Weapons of WWI - Tank The tank was invented to roll across no man’s land and over enemy trenches.The British Mark I was the first successful tank used on the battlefield.The Americans also developed a smaller, two man tank, the FT- 17
79New Weapons of WWI - U-Boat The U-Boat (or unterseeboot in German) was the German submarine used in WWI.They were very effective at blockading England for a time and destroyed both English (and American) Navy and merchant vessels.
81Allied Ships Sunk by U-Boats September 1916-April 1917May 1917-June 1918
82New Weapons of WWI - Fighter Planes and Zeppelins The new technology of the airplane saw its first use in battle during WWI.Originally used as reconnaissance, then fighters, by the end of the war they were also used as bombers.The Zeppelin blimps were also used as spy ships and bombers during the war.
83New Weapons of WWI - Fighter Planes The Red Baron’s Fokker Tri Plane
84The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, USFrancesco Barraco, It.Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br.Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “RedBaron”]Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr.Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg.
90New Weapons of WWI - Poison Gas Chlorine gas was first used by the Germans at the Second Battle of Ypres in April ofPhosgene gas which was more deadly was also used after this.Mustard gas which caused blindness and often death from pneumonia was invented and used in the last years of the war.
91New Weapons of WWI - Poison Gas British tear gas casualtiesBritish troops in gas masks at Ypres 1917German soldier and horse in gas masks
92Poison Gas Casualties of WWI NationGas casualties (estimated)FatalNon-fatalRussia50,000400,000Germany10,000190,000France8,000182,000Britain181,000Austria-Hungary3,00097,000USA1,50071,500Italy4,50055,000Total85,000 (3% of combat deaths)1,176,500
94Germany’s Spring Offensive Germany plans an offensive for the Spring of 1918 in the hopes that they can beat the Allies before too many Americans arriveFailure because:Put all of their forces into thisAll of the best troops were put in special units on the front line (stormtroopers)No plan for victory
95The Central Powers Fall On November 3, 1918, Austria-Hungary surrendered.On November 9, 1918, socialist leaders took over the German capital and established a German republic; the Kaiser gave up the throne.Finally, Germany agreed to sign an armistice (truce).On the eleventh hour of the eleventh day in the eleventh month of 1918, World War I was over.
96The War to End All Wars?World War I was the bloodiest war in history to that time.22 million were dead – more than half of them civilians.20 million people were wounded10 million became refugees.The U.S.A. lost 48,000 men in battle with another 62,000 dying of disease. More than 200,000 Americans were wounded.
97Major Players of WWI Primary Allied Powers Great Britain France Italy Russia (until 1917)United States (after 1917)Primary Central PowersGermanyAustria HungaryOttoman TurksBulgaria
98The Aftermath of WWIAfter Germany signed an armistice in 1918, negotiations began:The peace treaty was dictated by the leaders of the four remaining Allied Powers: Great Britain, France, Italy, and America.Russia was not allowed to enter into the treaty because they had dropped out of the war (and because they were communist).This was one of the first major occasions where only the victors sat at the negotiation table.
99Wilson’s 14 PointsPresident Wilson of the United States came up with a set of ideas known as the 14 points.No secret treaties between nationsFreedom of the seas for allLower or abolish tariffs between nations for free tradeReduce arms stockpilesColonial policies should take the interest of the colonial people into consideration as well as the imperialist powers
100Wilson’s 14 Points cont.Points 6-13 dealt with establishing boundaries in Europe along ethnic identities when larger nations were broken up.14. Establish a League of Nations to provide a forum for nations to discuss and settle their grievances before turning to war
101Problem!All the European leaders rejected Wilson’s 14 points. They wanted to make Germany pay and Wilson was left fighting for only the League of Nations.
102Treaty of Versailles • Germany could not maintain an army. • The final treaty established new nations out of the boundaries of old nations, especially Austria- Hungary.• Germany could not maintain an army.• Germany also had to return/give land to France.• Germany had to pay $33 billion to the Allies in war reparationsGermany had to follow the war-guilt clause in which Germany had to take full responsibility for the war.• Germany was stripped of colonial possessions.• A League of Nations was formed.
104Results of the Treaty of Versailles The U.S. never joined the League of Nations and the League could not deliver the peace that Wilson hoped for. The demands placed on Germany by the Treaty of Versailles were too great.They were humiliated and forced to pay more money than they could possibly come up with.The economic and moral disasters in Germany caused by the Treaty of Versailles would set the country up for a dictator who would lead them into WWII.
105Problems for WilsonImperialist leaders in Europe weren’t as idealist as WilsonEuropean leaders were worried about threats from CommunismIsolationist senators at home said they wouldn’t pass the League of Nations – this gave the Europeans more power at Versailles
106Problems for Wilson Allied countries wanted territory France wanted the Rhineland and the Saar BasinItaly wanted regions previously taken by A-HJapan wanted part of China and Pacific islandsIsolationists in America still refused to sign the treaty
107The Beginning of the End for Wilson Wilson collapsed in Colorado during his tour to take the League to the people (9/25/1919)He then had a strokeLodge smelled blood and tried to strip the treaty, but Wilson was still able to get loyal Democrats to vote against itBecause of this in-fighting, the treaty never passed and diedAmerica NEVER joins the League of Nations
108Election of 1920Republicans nominated Ohioan, Senator Warren G. Harding with Calvin Coolidge as his VPDemocrats nominated Ohioan, Governor James M. Cox with FDR as his running mate!Harding wins (with a landslide) in an attempt to “return to normalcy”…“I like Ike” after WWII is the same thing
111Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans Espionage Act– 1917forbade actions that obstructed recruitment or efforts to promote insubordination in the military.ordered the Postmaster General to remove Leftist materials from the mail.fines of up to $10,000 and/or up to 20 years in prison.
112Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 2.Sedition Act – 1918You couldn’t speak out against your countryIt was a crime to speak against purchase of war bonds or willfully utter, print, write or publish any disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language about this form of US Govt., the US Constitution, or the US armed forces or to willfully urge, incite, or advocate any curtailment of productionof things necessary or essential to the prosecution of the war…with intent of such curtailment to cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution of the war.
113Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 3.Schenck v. US– in ordinary times the mailing of the leaflets would have been protected by the st Amendment BUT, every act of speech must be judged according to the circumstances in which it was spoken The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic.[Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes] If an act of speech posed a clear and present danger, then Congress had the power to restrain such speech.
114Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 4.Abrams v. US– majority ruling --> said that the leafletters were inciting violence - cited Holmes’ “Clear and present danger” doctrine Holmes & Brandeis dissented: The best test of truth is the power of the thought to get itself accepted in the competition of the market, denying that a “silly leaflet” published by an “unknown man” constituted such a danger.
115Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 5. Post-war labor unrest:Labor Unions promised not to strike during the war, so they all began to strike after the war. Too much at onceCoal Miners Strike of 1919.Steel Strike of 1919.Boston Police Strike of 1919.
116“If Capital & Labor Don’t Pull Together” – Chicago Tribune Anti-Labor“If Capital & Labor Don’t Pull Together” – Chicago Tribune
117Consequences of Labor Unrest “While We Rock the Boat” – Washington Times
118“Keeping Warm” – Los Angeles Times Coal Miners’ Strike“Keeping Warm” – Los Angeles Times
119“Coming Out of the Smoke” – New York World Steel Strike“Coming Out of the Smoke” – New York World
120“What a Year Has Brought Forth” – NY World The “Red Scare”The Red scare was the first widespread Anti-Communist movement in AmericaTargeted towards labor unionsCalling unions “communist” was a great way to take away their power“What a Year Has Brought Forth” – NY World
121“Red Scare” -- Anti-Bolshevism “Put Them Out & Keep Them Out” – Philadelphia Inquirer
122“He gives aid & comfort to the enemies of society” – Chicago Tribune Boston Police Strike“He gives aid & comfort to the enemies of society” – Chicago Tribune
123“Striking Back” – New York Evening World Boston Police Strike“Striking Back” – New York Evening World
124Government Excess & Threats to the Civil Liberties of Americans 6. “The Red Scare”:Claimed to be against the rd. International goal --> promote worldwide communism.Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer (The Case Against the Reds)Palmer Raids
125“Red Scare” – Palmer Raids Bombs were sent to the houses of a number of government officials including Attorney General PalmerPalmer claimed it was the communistsA. Mitchell Palmer’s Home Bombed, 1920
126“Red Scare” – Palmer Raids Palmer Raids were a series of raids on the houses and offices of suspected “radicals” to search for evidence that they were involved in the bombingNo evidence, plenty of arrestsPolice Arrest “Suspected Reds’ in Chicago, 1920