World War I World War I 7 th Grade Social Studies Harold E. Winkler Middle School 7 th Grade Social Studies Harold E. Winkler Middle School
Review: We have discussed the causes of World War I: Militarism Alliances Imperialism Nationalism …and the “spark that ignited the bomb”… – The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary on June 28, 1914.
“ The War of the Industrial Revolution ” : New Technology
New Technology: Guns By the end of 1914, all of Europe was engaged in conflict. The German plan against France was to strike France as fast as possible through the small country of Belgium. The invention of the machine gun halted the plan… it was used by both sides and allowed the French to fend off the strong German attack. 4:35
New Technology: Tanks Tanks were first used by the British in defense of machine guns. Only flamethrowers and well thrown grenades could disable the tank.
New Technology: Flame Throwers & Grenade Launchers This brutal piece of weaponry could annihilate an entire trench and wipe out a solider brigade.
New Technology: Chemical Weapons WWI was the first major war to use chemical weapons. Chlorine and Mustard Gas were the two post popular chemical weapons. They caused suffocation, blindness, and death. Soldiers would protect themselves using gas masks.
Young Indiana Jones – World War I Gas Scene 3:59
New Technology: The Airplane Both sides used aircraft for spying, some bombing and air battles. Airplanes were slow, clumsy, and unreliable. The most famous of pilots was the German – Red Baron and American – Eddie Rickenbacher
The Flying Aces of World War I Eddie Rickenbacher, US Francesco Barraco, It. Rene Pauk Fonck, Fr. Manfred von Richtoffen, Ger. [The “Red Baron”] Willy Coppens de Holthust, Belg. Eddie “Mick” Mannoch, Br. 2:53
New Technology: U- Boats/Submarines Submarines were used by both sides to destroy navy fleets. Would cause destruction to trade. Germany used “unrestricted submarine warfare”, to destroy all ships against the German war effort.
The most important battles fought in France, along the Western Front. Both sides dug long trenches that faced each other. The land between the trenches was known as “No Man’s Land”. Trench warfare was brutal and long. The Western Front
Trench life was brutal! Poisonous gas caused blindness or lifelong nervous system and/or lung problems. Soldiers had emotional collapses also known as… “Shell Shock”. Soldiers feet standing in dirty water in the trenches led to TRENCH FOOT!
Horrible Histories: Winter in the Trenches & Food 4:13
Results of World War I Allies Powers victory on November 11, 1918: – “…on the 11 th hour, of the 11 th day, of the 11 th month.” – Also known as Armistice Day. Casualties: 10 million people dead. Political Results: Rise of the United States as a super power. New countries created throughout Europe. “Unfair” Treaty of Versailles (1918). Forming of the League of the League Nations.