Presentation on theme: "13.4 A Flawed Peace. The Eastern Front Russia is far behind other European countries in industrialization Army faces major losses, some troops desert."— Presentation transcript:
The Eastern Front Russia is far behind other European countries in industrialization Army faces major losses, some troops desert Bolshevik Revolution – Tsar Nicholas gives up the throne Russia withdraws from WWI in 1917, signs a separate treaty with Germany
U.S. Turns the Tides U.S. troops are fresh, not war weary Before: trenches unable to advance more than 10 miles in any direction After: U.S. fights in the 2nd Battle of the Marne, pushing Germans back
Central Powers Surrender Austria-Hungary faces unrest within its own borders Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria surrender German Kaiser abdicates, and armistice is signed on 11/11/1918 at 11 A.M.
The Peace Conference Big Four: leaders from each of the winning powers get together to discuss the peace treaty U.S. – Woodrow Wilson England – David Lloyd George France – Georges Clemenceau Italy – Vittorio Orlando
Treaty of Versailles Conflicting Visions of Peace Wilson = fair treatment Clemenceau = Revenge – land, money, & keep Germany weak France wants security from Germany in future, so they set up a buffer in the Rhineland To punish Germany, they take away its colonies, place all of the war guilt on Germany, and assign $33 billion in reparations
Wilson’s Fourteen Points 1. Open Diplomacy, no secret international agreements 4. Arms reduction to a point that still insures domestic safety. 5. Impartial adjustment of all colonial claims.
Wilson’s Fourteen Points 7. Evacuation of Belgium with restoration of full sovereignty 8. Restoration of the Alsace-Lorraine to France. 10. Autonomy for all nationalities of Austria- Hungary
League of Nations The last of the 14 points: 14. Creation of a covenant for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees of political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike. An organization where countries can meet and resolve their problems peacefully
Problems with the Treaty German people question why they must take all of the blame Harsh punishment leads to German anger, wishes for revenge Germany cannot feasibly pay the high reparations
Redrawing the Map of Europe New countries form in the Balkans: Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Turkey Germany gives up land, Poland is formed Russian lands also create new countries such as Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia