MAIN or MANIA Militarism Alliance System Imperialism Nationalism Asassination of Archduke Ferdinand. Brought alliances into war.
The Sides Central Powers – Germany – Ottoman Empire – Austria-Hungary Allied Powers – Russia – France – England
War Trenches Schlieffen Plan Technology Russia struggling on East America joins 1917 – Unrestricted submarine warfare – Woodrow Wilson
Allies Win Russia leaves war March 1917 U.S.A enters war Ottomans crumble A-H crumble Germany surrenders 11/11/18
Legacy Technological war Global war 8.5 million soldiers died 10 million civilians died Economic impact Geographical impact Disillusioned Versailles Treaty
June 28th 1919 Supposed to ensure a lasting peace Punishing Germany League of Nations Legacy of political and geographical difficulties
“Big Three” Woodrow Wilson – Fair and lasting peace – Fourteen Points – Armed forces of all nations reduced – League of Nations Frances Clemenceau – Germany to pay for the war – Stripped of land, industry and their armed forces – Heavy reparations. Lloyd George – Went along with Clemenceau.
Key Points Territory Alsace Lorraine was returned to France. Poland became an independent country All German and Turkish Colonies were taken away and put under Allied control. Finland, Lithuania, Latvia and Czechoslovakia were made independent. Austria-Hungary was split up and Yugoslavia was created.
Key Points Arms The German army was cut The German Navy was cut to 36 ships and no submarines. Germany was banned from having an Air Force
Key Points Reparations and Guilt: Germany has to accept total blame for the war. Germany had to pay 64B (790B)
Key Points The League of Nations: Created to prevent further world conflict.
Reactions Germany lost 13% of its land 12% of its people Public opinion soon swung against this 'Diktat‘ Germans who signed it='November Criminals‘ United States refused to ratify it because they didn't want to be part of the League of Nations.
Results The map of Europe was redrawn Numerous countries were left with large minorities groups 3.5m Germans in Czechoslovakia The League of Nations was weak without the United States and its army to enforce decisions. Many Germans felt unfairly treated Armistice not Surrender