2 USHC 5.5Analyze the United States rejection of internationalism, including postwar disillusionment, the Senate’s refusal to ratify the Versailles Treaty, the election of 1920, and the role of the United States in international affairs in the 1920s.
23 Ratifying Treaties“[The President] shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur....” -- Article II, Section 2
24 The Senate vote necessary to ratify a treaty 2/3The Senate vote necessary to ratify a treaty
25 The number of senators included in Wilson’s peace delegation to Europe.
29 Article X of the League Covenant The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled.
33 Sen. William Borah (R-ID) Irreconcilable“What is the result of all this? We are in the midst of all the affairs of Europe… We have joined in alliance with all the European nations… we have forfeited… the great policy of 'no entangling alliances' upon which the strength of this Republic has been founded.”Sen. William Borah (R-ID)
34 America should avoid all foreign entanglements. Reservationists(Imperialist Wing)America should engage the world on its own terms.Irreconcilables(Isolationist Wing)America should avoid all foreign entanglements.
35 The Lodge Reservations 14StipulationsSen. Henry Cabot Lodge (R-MA)View
36 Wilson’s DilemmaCompromise with Reservationists or stand his ground?
38 “The Senate must take its medicine.” -- Woodrow Wilson
39 Speaking TourPresident Wilson waves to a crowd in Saint Louis, Missouri, on September 6, 1919, during a speaking tour to promote the League of Nations.
40 Political Calculation Wilson’s RoutePolitical CalculationImage Source: NPS.gov
41 STROKE!Wilson suffered a stroke brought on by the stress of his campaign for the League. He was an invalid for the remainder of his term. (The public had no clue.)Woodrow Wilson's first posed photograph after his stroke. He was paralyzed on his left side, so his wife Edith holds a document steady while he signs. June 1920.
42 Review: The Treaty Factions InternationalistsRatify the Treaty AS ISReservationistsRatify the Treaty with ReservationsIrreconcilablesDON’T RATIFY the Treaty
43 Where is THIS GUY when we need him? Answer: Dead
44 BIGGER Republican Majority A “Solemn Referendum”1920BIGGER Republican Majority
45 League MembershipMap Credit: Maps & LucyThe United States never joined the League. Wilson’s mission to intimately involve the U.S. in global affairs was a failure.
46 I went to Versailles and all I got was this lousy peace prize. 1919