Presentation on theme: "Objectives Examine Woodrow Wilson’s plan for a lasting and just peace."— Presentation transcript:
1Objectives Examine Woodrow Wilson’s plan for a lasting and just peace. Understand how the Treaty of Versailles punished Germany.Explain why many Americans opposed membership in the League of Nations.
2Terms and Peopleself-determination– the right of a group to decide its own form of governmentreparations– payments to cover damagesHenry Cabot Lodge– a powerful Republican Senator who opposed U.S. membership in the League of Nationsdeport– to forcibly return an immigrant to his or her home country
3How did the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations disappoint President Wilson? After World War I, President Wilson wanted the U.S. to approve the Treaty of Versailles and join a worldwide peacekeeping organization, the League of Nations.Congress rejected both of these plans.
4Wilson’s Fourteen Points Before the war ended, President Wilson had presented a peace plan to Congress.Wilson’s Fourteen Points220.127.116.11.5.These points targeted the causes of the war.They included free trade among nations and a reduction of military forces.
5Wilson’s Fourteen Points 18.104.22.168.10.11.12.13.These points addressed territorial issues.Wilson called for self-determination for minority groups in Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.
6Wilson’s Fourteen Points This was Wilson’s most important point.14.He wanted to set up an international organization to guarantee world peace.
7Wilson presented his plan at a peace conference in Paris attended by the “Big Four.” The Big Four included Vittorio Orlando of Italy (not pictured) as well as Lloyd George of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson (pictured left to right).But, the other Allies wanted to punish Germany.
8After much debate, the Big Four drafted the Treaty of Versailles. German’s military would be limited.Treaty TermsThe Germans accepted full responsibility for the war.The Germans had to pay full reparations to the Allies.Germany lost some territory and colonies.
9Wilson opposed the treaty’s harsh demands. He agreed with it to form his peacekeeping organization, the League of Nations.On June 28, 1919, German delegates signed the treaty.German anger at the treaty was one cause of World War II.
10Other peace treaties applied the principle of self-determination to some of the Central Powers. Austria-Hungary was divided.Austria-HungaryAustriaHungaryCzechoslovakiaYugoslavia was formed.YugoslaviaSerbs of SerbiaOther Balkan Peoples
11Germany’s African Colonies Middle Eastern lands of Ottoman Empire The peacemakers did not apply self-determination to non-Europeans. Britain and France divided Germany’s African colonies and the Middle East.Germany’s African ColoniesBritainMiddle Eastern lands of Ottoman EmpireFranceResidents of these lands felt betrayed.
12After the war, Europe’s borders were redrawn. In 1918, Russia had given territory to Germany.The 1919 peace treaties brought more changes.
13Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Wilson’s idea for the League of Nations sparked heated debate in America.President WilsonSenator Henry Cabot LodgeThe U.S. must accept its “destiny” to lead the world on a new path.Membership in the League will restrict the U.S. from acting in its own interest.
14President Wilson lost his battle for the League of Nations. He toured the country to promote his plan.He suffered a massive stroke, but continued to support his plan from his sickbed.In November 1919, the Senate voted to reject the treaty.
15The absence of the U.S. crippled the League’s ability to solve worldwide crises in the 1930s. Cartoons like this one criticized America’s decision.U.S. participation is key to building the League of Nations.The keystone is not in place.
16The postwar years brought troubles to the U.S. An influenza epidemic killed over 500,000 Americans in 1918 and 1919.Peacetime brought high unemployment. In 1919, four million U.S. laborers went on strike.Fear of communism led to the “Red Scare.” Many immigrants were rounded up and deported.
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