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Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace Examine Woodrow Wilson’s plan for a lasting and just peace. Understand how the Treaty of Versailles punished Germany.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace Examine Woodrow Wilson’s plan for a lasting and just peace. Understand how the Treaty of Versailles punished Germany."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace Examine Woodrow Wilson’s plan for a lasting and just peace. Understand how the Treaty of Versailles punished Germany. Explain why many Americans opposed membership in the League of Nations. Objectives

2 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace Terms and People self-determination– the right of a group to decide its own form of government reparations– payments to cover damages Henry Cabot Lodge– a powerful Republican Senator who opposed U.S. membership in the League of Nations deport– to forcibly return an immigrant to his or her home country

3 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace After World War I, President Wilson wanted the U.S. to approve the Treaty of Versailles and join a worldwide peacekeeping organization, the League of Nations. Congress rejected both of these plans. How did the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations disappoint President Wilson?

4 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace Before the war ended, President Wilson had presented a peace plan to Congress. Wilson’s Fourteen Points 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. These points targeted the causes of the war. They included free trade among nations and a reduction of military forces.

5 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace Wilson’s Fourteen Points 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. These points addressed territorial issues. Wilson called for self- determination for minority groups in Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire.

6 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace Wilson’s Fourteen Points 14. This was Wilson’s most important point. He wanted to set up an international organization to guarantee world peace.

7 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace Wilson presented his plan at a peace conference in Paris attended by the “Big Four.” But, the other Allies wanted to punish Germany. The Big Four included Vittorio Orlando of Italy (not pictured) as well as Lloyd George of Britain, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson (pictured left to right).

8 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace After much debate, the Big Four drafted the Treaty of Versailles. Treaty Terms German’s military would be limited. The Germans accepted full responsibility for the war. The Germans had to pay full reparations to the Allies. Germany lost some territory and colonies.

9 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace Wilson opposed the treaty’s harsh demands. He agreed with it to form his peacekeeping organization, the League of Nations. On June 28, 1919, German delegates signed the treaty. German anger at the treaty was one cause of World War II.

10 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace Yugoslavia Other peace treaties applied the principle of self- determination to some of the Central Powers. Yugoslavia was formed. Austria-Hungary was divided. AustriaHungaryCzechoslovakiaAustria-HungarySerbs of Serbia Other Balkan Peoples

11 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace The peacemakers did not apply self-determination to non-Europeans. Britain and France divided Germany’s African colonies and the Middle East. Britain Germany’s African Colonies Middle Eastern lands of Ottoman Empire France Residents of these lands felt betrayed.

12 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace After the war, Europe’s borders were redrawn. In 1918, Russia had given territory to Germany. The 1919 peace treaties brought more changes.

13 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace Wilson’s idea for the League of Nations sparked heated debate in America. The U.S. must accept its “destiny” to lead the world on a new path. Membership in the League will restrict the U.S. from acting in its own interest. President Wilson Senator Henry Cabot Lodge

14 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace President Wilson lost his battle for the League of Nations. He toured the country to promote his plan. He suffered a massive stroke, but continued to support his plan from his sickbed. In November 1919, the Senate voted to reject the treaty.

15 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace The absence of the U.S. crippled the League’s ability to solve worldwide crises in the 1930s. Cartoons like this one criticized America’s decision. U.S. participation is key to building the League of Nations. The keystone is not in place.

16 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace An influenza epidemic killed over 500,000 Americans in 1918 and 1919. Peacetime brought high unemployment. In 1919, four million U.S. laborers went on strike. Fear of communism led to the “Red Scare.” Many immigrants were rounded up and deported. The postwar years brought troubles to the U.S.

17 Chapter 21 Section 4 Shaping the Peace Section Review Know It, Show It QuizQuickTake Quiz


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