Presentation on theme: "Classical Organizational Theory"— Presentation transcript:
1 Classical Organizational Theory Vincent MyersAndNina Presuto
2 Main idea of classical organizational theory There is “one best way” to perform a task
3 Classical organizational theory espouses two perspectives: Scientific management – focusing on the management of work and workersAdministrative management - addressing issues concerning how overall organization should be structured
4 Major contributors to the Classical Organizational Theory: Scientific Management:Frederick TaylorAdministrative Management:Henri FayolLuther Halsey GulickMax Weber
5 Frederick Taylor Taylor is born in Pennsylvania on March 20, 1856 After studying in Europe, he plans to go to Harvard, but does not pass the entrance examsInstead Taylor works as a pattern maker at a pump manufacturing company in PhiladelphiaLater, he studies mechanical engineering at Stevens, finishing in just three years.
6 Taylor identifies two people as having influenced him: Lucian Sharpe impresses Taylor with his focus, concentration, and task commitmentJohn Griffith teaches Taylor how to be an appreciative, respectful, and admirable working mechanic
7 Midvale Steel CompanyTaylor begins working for the Midvale steel Company in 1878.While there he succeeds in doubling the work of his men, is soon promoted to foremanAs foreman, he begins studying productivity as a means of measuring of manufacturing.Later he becomes the chief engineer at Midvale.
8 Ingenuity and Accomplishments Creates systems to gain maximum efficiency from workers and machines in the factory.Focuses on time and motion studies to learn how to complete a task in the least amount of time.Becomes consulting engineer for many other companiesPublishes—The Principles of Scientific Management
9 Key Points of Scientific Management Scientific Job Analysis – observation, data gathering, and careful measurement determine “the one best way” to perform each jobSelection of Personnel – scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop workersManagement Cooperation – managers should cooperate with workers to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that developed the planFunctional Supervising – managers assume planning, organizing, and decision-making activities, and workers perform jobs
10 Henri Fayol Engineer and French industrialist In France works as a managing director in coal-mining organizationRecognizes to the management principles rather than personal traitsWhile others shared this belief, Fayol was the first to identify management as a continuous process of evaluation.
11 Fayol’s 5 Management Functions Fundamental roles performed by all managers:PlanningOrganizingCommandingCoordinatingControllingAdditionally Fayol recognizes fourteen principles that should guide the management of organizations.
12 Fayol’s 14 Principles:Division of Work —improves efficiency through a reduction of waste, increased output, and simplification of job trainingAuthority and Responsibility—authority: the right to give orders and the power to extract obedience – responsibility: the obligation to carry out assigned dutiesDiscipline—respect for the rules that govern the organization
13 4. Unity of Command—an employee should receive orders from one superior only 5. Unity of Direction—grouping of similar activities that are directed to a single goal under one manager6. Subordination of Individual Interests to the General Interest—interests of individuals and groups should not take precedence over the interests of the organization as a whole.7. Remuneration of Personnel—payment should be fair and satisfactory for employees and the organization8. Centralization—managers retain final responsibility – subordinates maintain enough responsibility to accomplish their tasks
14 9. Scalar Chain (Line of Authority)—the chain of command from the ultimate authority to the lowest 10. Order—people and supplies should be in the right place at the right time11. Equity—managers should treat employees fairly and equally12. Stability of Tenure of Personnel—managerial practices that encourage long-term commitment from employees create a stable workforce and therefore a successful organization13. Initiative—employees should be encouraged to develop and carry out improvement plans14. Esprit de Corps—managers should foster and maintain teamwork, team spirit, and a sense of unity among employees
15 Luther Halsey Gulick (1892-1992) A specialist in municipal finance and administrationGulick works with the Institute of Public Administration, professor of municipal science and administration at Columbia, and serves on Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Committee of Government AdministrationExpands Fayol’s five management functions into seven functions:
16 Planning - developing an outline of the things that must be accomplished and the methods for accomplishing themOrganizing - establishes the formal structure of authority through which work subdivisions are arranged, defined, and coordinated to implement the planStaffing - selecting, training, and developing the staff and maintaining favorable working conditionsDirecting - the continuous task of making decisions, communicating and implementing decisions, and evaluating subordinates properly
17 Coordinating - all activities and efforts needed to bind together the organization in order to achieve a common goalReporting - verifies progress through records, research, and inspection; ensures that things happen according to plan; takes any corrective action when necessary; and keeps those to whom the chief executive is responsible informedBudgeting - all activities that accompany budgeting, including fiscal planning, accounting, and control
18 Max Weber (1864-1920) German sociologist Weber first describes the concept of bureaucracy – an ideal form of organizational structureHe defines bureaucratic administration as the exercise of control on the basis of knowledgeWeber states, “Power is principally exemplified within organizations by the process of control”
19 Weber uses and defines the terms authority and power as: Power: any relationship within which one person could impose his will, regardless of any resistance from the other.Authority: existed when there was a belief in the legitimacy of that power.
20 Weber classifies organizations according to the legitimacy of their power and uses three basic classifications:Charismatic Authority: based on the sacred or outstanding characteristic of the individual.Traditional Authority: essentially a respect for customs.Rational Legal Authority: based on a code or set of rules.
21 Weber recognizes that rational legal authority is used in the most efficient form of organization because:A legal code can be established which can claim obedience from members of the organizationThe law is a system of abstract rules which are applied to particular cases; and administration looks after the interests of the organization within the limits of that law.
22 The manager or the authority additionally follows the impersonal order Membership is key to law obedienceObedience is derived not from the person administering the law, but rather to the impersonal order that installed the person’s authority
23 Weber outlined his ideal bureaucracy as defined by the following parameters:A continuous system of authorized jobs maintained by regulationsSpecialization: encompasses a defined “sphere of competence,” based on its divisions of laborA stated chain of command of offices: a consistent organization of supervision based on distinctive levels of authority
24 Rules: an all encompassing system of directives which govern behavior: rules may require training to comprehend and manageImpersonality: no partiality, either for or against, clients, workers, or administratorsFree selection of appointed officials: equal opportunity based on education and professional qualification
25 Full-time paid officials: only or major employment; paid on the basis of position Career officials: promotion based on seniority and merit; designated by supervisorsPrivate/Public split: separates business and private lifeThe finances and interests of the two should be kept firmly apart: the resources of the organization are quite distinct from those of the members as private individuals.
26 A tendency to a leveling of social classes by allowing a wide range of recruits with technical competence to be taken by any organization(b) Elite status because of the time required to achieve the necessary technical training(c) Greater degree of social equality due to the dominance of the spirit of impersonality or objectivity
27 Common Criticisms of Classical Organizational Theory Classical principles of formal organization may lead to a work environment in which:Employees have minimal power over their jobs and working conditionsSubordination, passivity and dependence are expectedwork to a short term perspectiveEmployees are lead to mediocrityWorking conditions produce to psychological failure as a result of the belief that they are lower class employees performing menial tasks
28 Activity: Break into four groups: Taylor, Fayol, Gulick and Weber Refer to the power point notes you have been given to examine a classical organizational theorist’s principlesConsider what you discussed about each principleAnalyze how the theorists beliefs exist, don’t exist, or are modified within today’s educational worldPlease have someone take notes on your workLead a discussion of how your theorist’s ideas relate to the current system of educational administration