Presentation on theme: "THEORIES AND CONCEPTS OF ORGANIZATION"— Presentation transcript:
1THEORIES AND CONCEPTS OF ORGANIZATION CLASSICAL THEORY OF ORGANIZATIONPresented byMUHAMMAD YAHYA AHMADCEdAP STUDENT OF PCU MANILA
2Organization Theory (Some Definitions) A proposition or set of propositions that attempts to explain or predict how groups and individuals behave in differing organizational arrangements.Organizational theory attempts to explain the workings of organizations to produce understanding and appreciation of organizations.Some types of organizational theories include classical, neoclassical, contingency, systems and organizational structure
3Organization Theory (Some Definitions) Organization theory: is the set of propositions (body of knowledge) stemming from a definable field of study which can be termed organizations science.The study of organizations: is an applied science because the resulting knowledge is relevant to problem solving or decision making in ongoing enterprises or institutions.
4Organization Theory (Some Definitions) Classical organization theory combines aspects of scientific management, bureaucratic theory and administrative theory. Scientific management involves obtaining optimal equipment and personnel and then carefully scrutinizing each component of the production process,Neoclassical organization theory is a reaction to the authoritarian structure of classical theory. The neoclassical approach emphasizes the human needs of employees to be happy in the workplace,
5Organization Theory (Some Definitions) 3. Contingency theory views conflict in the work place as inescapable, but also manageable. This differs from classical and neoclassical theories that interpret conflict as interference with organizational equilibrium 4. Systems theorists believe all organizational components are interrelated. Changes in one component may affect all other components 5. Organizational structure became an important aspect of organizational theory due to the increasing complexity of multinational organizations.
6PERSPECTIVES OF ORGANIZATION THEORIES Human asMachineHumanRelationsStructuralistsTheoryOpenSystemsContingencyHeavyhandedHostilityamongworkersHumanizeManagementStillaccomplishgoalsEfficiencyUnderstandtensionsbetweenproduction andhumansWays toadapt toenvironmentalpressuresHorizontalCommunicat-ionBridge fromclosed toopen SystemsRationalityVsIrrationality
8Three Major Theories of Organization 3 Theories of OrganizationsClassical TheoryFour Basic components to any OrganizationSystem of differentiated activitiesPeopleCooperation toward a goalAuthorityNeoclassical TheoryCritique of the 4 structural principles of classical TheoryFunctionalScalarLine/StaffSpan of controlSystem theoryFive parts of an organizationIndividualsFormal organizationSmall groupsStatus & RolesPhysical setting
9Classical TheoryOrganizations exist to accomplish production-related and economic goals.There is one best way to organize for production, and that way can be found through systematic, scientific inquiry.Production is maximized through specialization and division of labor.People and organizations act in accordance with rational economic principles.
10Classical Theory (Covers the period from 1900's to mid-1930) Three assumptions:The relationship between employees and management: formal structured communication process, defined tasks, defined accountability, and formalized procedures and practices to avoid any conflict in their relationship.The Workers have been treated as economic man who can be motivated by means of money only.The workers have been considered as a product of means of production or as a cog in the wheel.
11Classical Theory Two perspectives: Scientific management (Frederick Taylor)– focusing on the management of work and workersAdministrative management (Henri Fayol Luther Halsey Gulick and Max Weber): addressing issues concerning how overall organization should be structured
12Classical Theory (Fayol’s 5 Management Functions) Fundamental roles performed by all managers:PlanningOrganizingCommandingCoordinatingControllingAdditionally Fayol recognizes fourteen principles that should guide the management of organizations.
13Classical Theory (Scientific Management Frederick W. Taylor, 1911) Scientific management principles.Replacing traditional, rule of thumb methods of work accomplishment with systematic, more scientific methods of measuring and managing individual work elements;The scientific study of the selection and sequential development of workers to ensure optimal placement of works into work roles;Obtaining the cooperation of workers to ensure full application of scientific principles; And.Establishing logical divisions within work roles and responsibilities between workers and management.
14Classical Theory (The fourteen principles of organization (Henry Fayol) Division of WorkAuthority and ResponsibilityDisciplineUnity of commandUnity of DirectionSubordination of Individual Interest of General InterestRemuneration of PersonnelCentralization of AuthorityScalar ChainOrderEquityStability of TenureInitiativeEsprit de Corps
15Classical Theory (7 functions’ of management Luther H. Gulick) Planning - developing an outline of the things that must be accomplished and the methods for accomplishing themOrganizing - establishes the formal structure of authority through which work subdivisions are arranged, defined, and coordinated to implement the planStaffing - selecting, training, and developing the staff and maintaining favorable working conditionsDirecting - the continuous task of making decisions, communicating and implementing decisions, and evaluating subordinates properlyCoordinating - all activities and efforts needed to bind together the organization in order to achieve a common goalReporting - verifies progress through records, research, and inspection; ensures that things happen according to plan; takes any corrective action when necessary; and keeps those to whom the chief executive is responsible informedBudgeting - all activities that accompany budgeting, including fiscal planning, accounting, and control
16Classical Theory (Bureaucratic administration, Max Weber) Power: any relationship within which one person could impose his will, regardless of any resistance from the other.Authority: existed when there was a belief in the legitimacy of that power.Charismatic Authority: based on the sacred or outstanding characteristic of the individual.Traditional Authority: essentially a respect for customs.Rational Legal Authority: based on a code or set of rules.
17Relevance of the Classical Theory of Organization Principle's of organizations formulated in the 18th century are not able to enhance performance in the changed environment and technology and contribute negatively to organizational performance.Fayol's principle: organization as a closed system, organizational factors are under the control of management.
18Critics to the Relevance of the Classical Theory of Organization Modern management operates in a dynamic environment constantly adopted to suit the changes in the environment. Modern organizations do not operate in vacuum environment. Modern organizations tend to provide maximum autonomy , free to take actions to solve problems: to think, innovate, explore and bring about positive and effective changes.