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ACCA – F1 Lesson One Part I. Lesson Outline Discussion of plan of study Topics – Managers and Management – Organisation and the importance of Management.

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Presentation on theme: "ACCA – F1 Lesson One Part I. Lesson Outline Discussion of plan of study Topics – Managers and Management – Organisation and the importance of Management."— Presentation transcript:

1 ACCA – F1 Lesson One Part I

2 Lesson Outline Discussion of plan of study Topics – Managers and Management – Organisation and the importance of Management – Different Approaches to Management

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–3 Who Are Managers? Manager – Someone who coordinates and oversees the work of other people so that organizational goals can be accomplished.

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–4 Classifying Managers First-line Managers (Supervisors, Team Leaders) – Individuals who manage the work of non-managerial employees. Middle Managers – Individuals who manage the work of first-line managers. Top Managers – Individuals who are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization.

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–5 Exhibit 1–2Managerial Levels

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–6 What Is Management? Management involves coordinating and overseeing the work activities of others so that their activities are completed efficiently and effectively.

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–7 What Is Management? Managerial Concerns – Efficiency “Doing things right” – Getting the most output for the least inputs – Effectiveness “Doing the right things” – Attaining organizational goals

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–8 Exhibit 1–3Effectiveness and Efficiency in Management

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–9 What Managers Do? Three Approaches to Defining What Managers Do. – Functions they perform. – Roles they play. – Skills they need.

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–10 What Managers Do? Functions Manager’s Perform – Planning Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve goals, developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. – Organizing Arranging and structuring work to accomplish organizational goals. – Leading Working with and through people to accomplish goals. – Controlling Monitoring, comparing, and correcting work.

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–11 Exhibit 1–4Management Functions

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–12 What Managers Do? Roles Manager’s Play – Roles are specific actions or behaviors expected of a manager. – Henry Mintzberg identified 10 roles grouped around interpersonal relationships, the transfer of information, and decision making.

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–13 What Managers Do? Management Roles (Mintzberg) – Interpersonal roles Figurehead (Representative), leader (Provides leadership – guidance and way forward), liaison (go between – coordinator) – Informational roles Monitor (Controller), disseminator (provision of information and work), spokesperson – Decisional roles Entrepreneur, disturbance handler (resolving conflicts), resource allocator, negotiator (mediating to achieve consensus)

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–14 What Managers Do (Mintzberg) Actions – thoughtful thinking – practical doing

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–15 Interpersonal Roles Figurehead Leader Liaison Informational Roles Monitor Disseminator Spokesperson Decisional Roles Entrepreneur Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator Exhibit 1.5 Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles Adapted from Mintzberg, Henry, The Nature of Managerial Work, 1st Edition, © 1980, pp. 93–94..

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–16 What Managers Do? Skills Managers Need – Technical skills Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field – Human skills The ability to work well with other people – Conceptual skills The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and complex situations concerning the organization

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–17 Exhibit 1–6 Skills Needed at Different Management Levels

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–18 How The Manager’s Job Is Changing The Increasing Importance of Customers – Customers: the reason that organizations exist Managing customer relationships is the responsibility of all managers and employees – CRM (Customer Relationship Management) Consistent high quality customer service is essential for survival. Innovation – Doing things differently, exploring new territory, and taking risks Managers should encourage employees to be aware of and act on opportunities for innovation.

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–19 Exhibit 1–8 Changes Affecting a Manager’s Job

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–20 What Is An Organization? An Organization Defined – A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose (that individuals independently could not accomplish alone). Common Characteristics of Organizations – Have a distinct purpose (goal) – Composed of people – Have a deliberate structure

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–21 Exhibit 1–9 Characteristics of Organizations

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–22 Why Study Management? The Value of Studying Management – The universality of management Good management is needed in all organizations. – The reality of work Employees either manage or are managed. – Rewards and challenges of being a manager Management offers challenging, exciting and creative opportunities for meaningful and fulfilling work. Successful managers receive significant monetary rewards for their efforts.

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1–23 Exhibit 1–10 Universal Need for Management

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–24 Exhibit 2–1 Major Approaches to Management

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–25 Major Approaches to Management Classical Quantitative Behavioral Contemporary

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–26 Scientific Management Fredrick Winslow Taylor – The “father” of scientific management – Published Principles of Scientific Management (1911) The theory of scientific management – Using scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done: » Putting the right person on the job with the correct tools and equipment. » Having a standardized method of doing the job. » Providing an economic incentive to the worker.

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–27 Exhibit 2–2 Taylor’s Scientific Management Principles 1.Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work, which will replace the old rule-of-thumb method. 2.Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker. 3.Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed. 4.Divide work (Division of Work) and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers.

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–28 General Administrative Theory Henri Fayol – Believed that the practice of management was distinct from other organizational functions – Developed principles of management that applied to all organizational situations Max Weber – Developed a theory of authority based on an ideal type of organization (bureaucracy) Emphasized rationality, predictability, impersonality, technical competence, and authoritarianism

29 2–29 Exhibit 2–3 Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management 1.Division of work 2.Authority 3.Discipline 4.Unity of command – Only one person gives instructions 5.Unity of direction – On organisational purpose (mission) 6.Subordination of individual interests to the general interest – Esprit De Corps (Act as One Body) 7.Remuneration 8.Centralization 9.Scalar chain 10.Order (systems and procedures) 11.Equity (balance of work) 12.Stability of tenure of personnel 13.Initiative 14.Esprit de corps

30 Two sectors – – Private Sector Public Limited Companies Private Limited Companies Sole Proprietorships Partnerships Cooperative societies and mutual organisations – Public Sector Government departments and corporations Local authorities – Not for profit Sector Charitable organisations Unions

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–31 The Systems Approach System Defined – A set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole. Basic Types of Systems – Closed systems Are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment (all system input and output is internal). – Open systems Dynamically interact to their environments by taking in inputs and transforming them into outputs that are distributed into their environments.

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–32 Exhibit 2–7 The Organization as an Open System

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–33 Implications of the Systems Approach Coordination of the organization’s parts is essential for proper functioning of the entire organization. Decisions and actions taken in one area of the organization will have an effect in other areas of the organization. Organizations are not self-contained and, therefore, must adapt to changes in their external environment.

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–34 The Contingency Approach Contingency Approach Defined – Also sometimes called the situational approach. – There is no one universally applicable set of management principles (rules) by which to manage organizations. – Organizations are individually different, face different situations (contingency variables), and require different ways of managing.

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–35 Exhibit 2–8Popular Contingency Variables Organization size As size increases, so do the problems of coordination. Routineness of task technology Routine technologies require organizational structures, leadership styles, and control systems that differ from those required by customized or non-routine technologies. Environmental uncertainty What works best in a stable and predictable environment may be totally inappropriate in a rapidly changing and unpredictable environment. Individual differences Individuals differ in terms of their desire for growth, autonomy, tolerance of ambiguity, and expectations.


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