Review from Ch. 2 –- Beginnings of Civilization Most anthropologists believe… Homo sapiens ( “wise man”) originated in the African savanna between 100,000 and 250,000 years ago Oldest remains found in the Horn of Africa, near modern-day Addis Ababa, Ethiopia descended from Homo erectus (“upright man”) colonized Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 years ago colonized the Americas by 10,000 years ago
Beginnings of Civilization Domestication of livestock +/- 10,000 years ago Cows were highly valued (more than gold) Domestication of agriculture (crops) +/- 8,000 years ago Iron working technologies +/- 4,500 years ago
1000 different languages; 1000+ different tribes
Family Structure” 1.Nuclear Family 2.Extended Family 3.Age-Set 4.Clan 5.Lineage (Ancestry) TRIBE (communal living)
Traditional Family Structures Nuclear Family: Extended Family: C C C H W C C C H W GP Cs GP Cs U A Age Sets: People born two to three years apart; formed bonds together
Benefits of Tribal Life 1. The good of the group comes ahead of the good of the individual. 2. All land is owned by the group. 3. Strong feeling of loyalty to the group. 4. Protection from enemies. 5. Your tribe is a huge family. 6. Everything is shared.
Problems of Tribalism Today 1. The tribe is more important than the nation. 2. Communication problems. 3. Inter-tribal warfare --> civil wars. 4. Members favored for gov’t jobs Nepotism 5. Urbanization: Breaks down tribal traditions. Tribal intermingling on the job.
Traditional African Religion ANIMISM 1. one Supreme Being. 3. ancestor worship. 4. magic, charms, fetishes, and nature spirits (god of the mountain, etc). 2. world of spirits (good & bad) in all things. 5. Diviner / Shaman fortune teller; mediator between tribe and God. Which civilization(s) we studied earlier have similar religious beliefs ???
African Diviner (Shaman) African Spirituals had a strong influence on the development of Southern Baptists and other Evangelical Christians of ‘The Old South’. Spiritual BaptistTribal Shaman