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African Civilizations Chapter 8

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1 African Civilizations Chapter 8


3 Chapter 8 Vocabulary Sahara: Largest desert in the world. Northern Africa Sahel: Southern edge of the Sahara desert Savanna: Dry grassland plains Animism: Religion based in spirits (Plants, Animals, Weather) Djenne-Djeno: West African city on the Niger river Migration: Moving to a new place Bantu-Speaking Peoples: Lived in the Savanna south of the Sahara, moved to the southern tip of Africa Aksum: East African empire that conquered Kingdom of Kush

4 Diverse Societies in Africa
A Land of Geographic Contrasts From Deserts to Rain Forests Sahara and Kalahari deserts are largest in Africa Rain forest is centered around Congo River Basin From Fertile Farmlands to Grassy Plains Mediterranean Climate is best for growing crops and raising animals Savannas: cover 3/5ths of continent (Grasslands/little rainfall Desertification: Process of formerly fertile land becoming desert

5 Early Humans Adapt to Their Environments
Nomadic Lifestyle Some African tribes that live din deserts or rainforests still practice this life style Agriculture began in African around 10,000 BC on Savannas in the Nile River Valley

6 Africans Share Common Characteristics
Family is the most important social unit Clan: Group that shares common ancestors Animism: Belief that spirits play an important role in daily life Griots: Storytellers that keep history alive

7 Early Societies in West Africa
Djenne-Djeno Oldest known city in Sub-Sahara Africa (250 BC) Center of trade on Niger River and camel Routs The Nok Culture First West Africans who smelt iron Pump oxygen into fires!


9 Bantu Migration Massive Migration
Migration: A permanent move from one country or region to another Causes of Migration Environmental: People move/flee from poor environmental conditions or move to better areas Economic: People move in search of better jobs/opportunities Political: People move to avoid persecution or to achieve freedom

10 Types of Migration Push Factor: Something forces people out of a region Pull Factor: Something attracts people to a new area Effects of Migration Cultural Diffusion Clashes between natives and new people Overpopulation/depopulation

11 Example of Migration Bantu Migration: A related tribe of people who migrated out of western Africa into central and southern Africa Brought iron-making technology and new language to central and southern Africa


13 Review Questions What is desertification? What is animism?
Give one example of a cause for migration, and one example of an effect. What is the difference between push and pull factors of migration? Name one specific effect of the Bantu migration.

14 The Kingdom of Aksum Chapter 8:3


16 The Rise of the Kingdom of Aksum
Conquered the Kingdom of Kush Located in the country of Ethiopia (Great Horn) Important Trading Areas Red sea Indian Ocean Arabian Peninsula Traces history to King Solomon/Queen Sheba’s son Middle Man for Trade between Africa and Middle East $$$$$ Traded: Salt, rhinoceros horns, tortoise shells, ivory, emeralds and Gold **Gold + Salt**

17 An International Culture Develops
Trading Center Mixed culture (Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Persian, India and Byzantium) Aksum adopts to Christianity! King Ezana Ethiopia is home to millions of devout Christians even today!! Ark of the Covenant? The Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion


19 Aksum Terrace farming Minted coins Canals, cisterns Lasted 800
Aksumite Innovations The Fall of Aksum Terrace farming Minted coins Canals, cisterns Lasted 800 Islamic Invaders Isolated Christians Surrounded by Muslims Moved capital to mountains Escape the Muslim/Islam invasion

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