3Chapter 8 VocabularySahara: Largest desert in the world. Northern AfricaSahel: Southern edge of the Sahara desertSavanna: Dry grassland plainsAnimism: Religion based in spirits (Plants, Animals, Weather)Djenne-Djeno: West African city on the Niger riverMigration: Moving to a new placeBantu-Speaking Peoples: Lived in the Savanna south of the Sahara, moved to the southern tip of AfricaAksum: East African empire that conquered Kingdom of Kush
4Diverse Societies in Africa A Land of Geographic ContrastsFrom Deserts to Rain ForestsSahara and Kalahari deserts are largest in AfricaRain forest is centered around Congo River BasinFrom Fertile Farmlands to Grassy PlainsMediterranean Climate is best for growing crops and raising animalsSavannas: cover 3/5ths of continent (Grasslands/little rainfallDesertification: Process of formerly fertile land becoming desert
5Early Humans Adapt to Their Environments Nomadic LifestyleSome African tribes that live din deserts or rainforests still practice this life styleAgriculture began in African around 10,000 BC on Savannas in the Nile River Valley
6Africans Share Common Characteristics Family is the most important social unitClan: Group that shares common ancestorsAnimism: Belief that spirits play an important role in daily lifeGriots: Storytellers that keep history alive
7Early Societies in West Africa Djenne-DjenoOldest known city in Sub-Sahara Africa (250 BC)Center of trade on Niger River and camel RoutsThe Nok CultureFirst West Africans who smelt ironPump oxygen into fires!
9Bantu Migration Massive Migration Migration: A permanent move from one country or region to anotherCauses of MigrationEnvironmental: People move/flee from poor environmental conditions or move to better areasEconomic: People move in search of better jobs/opportunitiesPolitical: People move to avoid persecution or to achieve freedom
10Types of MigrationPush Factor: Something forces people out of a regionPull Factor: Something attracts people to a new areaEffects of MigrationCultural DiffusionClashes between natives and new peopleOverpopulation/depopulation
11Example of MigrationBantu Migration: A related tribe of people who migrated out of western Africa into central and southern AfricaBrought iron-making technology and new language to central and southern Africa
13Review Questions What is desertification? What is animism? Give one example of a cause for migration, and one example of an effect.What is the difference between push and pull factors of migration?Name one specific effect of the Bantu migration.
16The Rise of the Kingdom of Aksum Conquered the Kingdom of KushLocated in the country of Ethiopia (Great Horn)Important Trading AreasRed seaIndian OceanArabian PeninsulaTraces history to King Solomon/Queen Sheba’s sonMiddle Man for Trade between Africa and Middle East$$$$$Traded: Salt, rhinoceros horns, tortoise shells, ivory, emeralds and Gold**Gold + Salt**
17An International Culture Develops Trading CenterMixed culture (Greek, Roman, Egyptian, Persian, India and Byzantium)Aksum adopts to Christianity!King EzanaEthiopia is home to millions of devout Christians even today!!Ark of the Covenant?The Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion
19Aksum Terrace farming Minted coins Canals, cisterns Lasted 800 Aksumite InnovationsThe Fall of AksumTerrace farmingMinted coinsCanals, cisternsLasted 800Islamic InvadersIsolated ChristiansSurrounded by MuslimsMoved capital to mountainsEscape the Muslim/Islam invasion