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Text extracted from Guns Germs and Steel By Jared Diamond, 1997

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1 Text extracted from Guns Germs and Steel By Jared Diamond, 1997
Agricultural Societies The evolution of Government and Religion From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy Text extracted from Guns Germs and Steel By Jared Diamond, 1997

2 Government and Religion
Descendents of those societies that earliest achieved centralized government organized religion ended up dominating the modern world


4 Government and Religion
4 main forces of history: Resulting in the broadest patterns government & religion germs writing technology Babylon

5 Government and Religion
How did government and religion arise? How did they become combined? King Solomon

6 Levels of Social Organization
Bands Tribes Chiefdoms States China: early state society

7 Bands Tiny Populations: typically 5-80 people
Most are close relatives by birth or marriage All humans lived in bands until 40,000 years ago In recent history: African Pygmies, Bushmen Australian Aborigines Eskimos Bushman

8 Bands Usually nomadic: Land used by whole group No specialization:
live in areas where food is scarce Land used by whole group No specialization: all able-bodied individuals forage for food Economic system: Reciprocal Exchange No laws, police, or treaties to resolve conflicts: But being closely related helps

9 Bands No stratification into classes Egalitarian leadership based on
 personality  strength  intelligence  fighting skill Australian Aboriginal

10 Fayu in New Guinea Four clans totaling 400 people
Normally live as single families scattered in swampy area Come together once or twice a year to negotiate brides Formerly numbered 2,000 Population reduced by Fayu killing Fayu Lacked political and social mechanisms to resolve disputes

11 Tribes Society with hundreds of people, usually settled in many villages Few left today Shared language and culture More than one clan (kinship group) Land belongs to clans within a tribe Everyone knows everyone else by name and relationship

12 Tribes Conflicts still solved by being closely related
If two New Guinea Tribesmen were both away from their villages and happened upon one another They would engage in a long discussion to determine possible family ties Otherwise, no reason not to kill one another

13 Tribes Social System egalitarian No upper or lower class
Each has debts and obligations to many others No one can become more wealthy Government still egalitarian Decisions are made in a group “Big Man” would have limited power may look and live like everyone else Tribal chief, Brazil

14 Reciprocity Reciprocity was the Basis of Early Economic Systems

15 Reciprocity Gift giving creates an obligation to return similar gifts
Feasting improves relations, prevents hostility, is an excellent way to “store” food Reciprocity leads to intermarriage Villages are connected by multiple ties of kinship Reciprocity results in food security, balances inequities Political leadership is bestowed on those that give the most

16 Kerekere in Moala Moalans live in 1200 scattered villages in Fiji Pacific Islands Kerekere is a formal request for a good or service Can only kerekere a relative, but everyone  are relatives Are duty bound to honor a kerekere if you have what is asked for This system evens out inequity Prestige comes from giving more than taking   

17 Hunting and Gathering Societies
Government Bands and Tribes Egalitarian Economy Ideology Hunting & Gathering Nature Religions Reciprocal Exchange God and Goddess Worship

18 Chiefdoms Population: several thousand to tens of thousands
Arose about 7,500 years ago with rising populations In 1492, widespread in  N. and S. America  Africa  Polynesia

19 Chiefdoms No chiefdoms left in 20th century
Prime land taken by larger state societies Chiefdoms consolidated into states

20 Chiefdoms Usually have Public Architecture Easter Islands Temples
Tombs Easter Islands

21 Chiefdoms Most people unrelated to others
People don’t know most others by name For first time in history, people had to learn how to encounter strangers regularly without attempting to kill them  

22 Chief Held monopoly on right to use force
Held recognizable, hereditary office Wore distinguishing clothes: demanded respect

23 Chief Was thought of as a god Centralized authority:
or had a hotline to the gods Centralized authority: Monopoly on information Levels of Bureaucrats work under Chief Many specialized jobs that can be done by slaves

24 Redistributive Economy
Chief receives food from everyone, then Throws feast to redistribute Stores it for later redistribution Keeps much of it himself (tribute) Chief also claims labor for construction of public works: Irrigation, Lavish Tombs 20,000 workers built the Taj Mahal

25 Redistribution Chief receives foodstuffs, goods from many
because he has power Chief has power because he regularly directs a flow of goods to his followers Early city-states operated on this principle

26 Traders Traders did not make a profit
were agents of the empire Goods traded on a fixed-price basis Did not buy low and sell high

27 Luxury Goods Food surpluses generated by common people feed
Chief Bureaucrats & Priests Craft Specialists Luxury Goods reserved for Chiefs

28 Contribution Enforced
In Mesopotamia, police ensured that farmers contributed Impersonality of city life ends feelings of obligation of Chief to people or vice versa

29 Good Chiefdoms Good chiefdoms used tribute to provide important services to entire society Irrigation Religion Defense Roman Aqueduct

30 Kleptocracies At worst, chiefdoms were kleptocracies
Transferred net wealth from commoners to upper class

31 Kleptocracies How do kleptocracies keep from being overthrown?
Disarm the populace arm the elite Redistribute tribute in popular ways Use monopoly of force to keep public order Construct an ideology or religion that justifies kleptocracy

32 State Religion Provides bond between people not based on kinship
keeps them from killing each other Gives warriors a motive for sacrificing life in battle: now much more effective in conquest

33 States Babylon Populations of 50,000 to 1 Billion
Usually literate elites sometimes literate population Arose 3,700 BC in Mesopotamia Later in Mesoamerica, China, Southeast Asia, Andes, West Africa Babylon

34 Earliest States

35 States True cities, characterized by Monumental public works
Palaces of rulers Accumulation of capital from tribute or taxes Concentration of people other than food producers

36 States Early states: Democracies today:
hereditary leader equivalent to a king Democracies today: crucial knowledge still available to only a few Central control, redistribution of tribute more far-reaching Even farmers not self-sufficient

37 Mesopotamia Food produced by 4 specialist groups Cereal farmers
Herders Fishermen Orchard and Garden growers

38 Mesopotamia State took produce from each farming group
Redistributed necessary supplies and the other foods not produced Exchanged wool by long distance trade for other essential raw materials Paid food rations to laborers who maintained irrigation systems for farmers

39 Slavery Many states adopted slavery on much larger scale than chiefdoms because More use for slave labor More economic specialization More mass production More public works Warfare on a larger scale meant more captives available Mesopotamian slaves

40 Bureaucracies More complex bureaucracies
Formalized laws, judiciary, police Laws often written (by literate elite) Writing not developed until formation of state societies Mesopotamia Mesoamerica Code of Hammurabi, Mesopotamia

41 Religion Early: state religions Many kings divine
standardized temples Many kings divine Kings often head of state religion Mesopotamian Temple was center of Religion Economic redistribution Writing Crafts technology Mesopotamian Temple

42 Expansion of Agricultural Societies
Expanded Conquest Conquest Land Agriculture Slaves Food Population Technology Small Group Etc.

43 Agricultural Societies
Government Chiefdoms, States Kleptocracies, Elites Kings = Gods Economy Ideology Agriculture State Religions Redistribution, Tribute Central Temple Conquest, Slavery Male dominated

44 Agricultural Society Hierarchy
Elite Conquest Wealth, Tribute Food, Resources Conquered & Exploited: Peasants, Slaves, Workers

45 Wealth and Poverty Wealth: Poverty: Elite
Own land, Well-fed Educated, Health care, Opportunities Poverty: Wealth, Tribute Food, Resources Landless, hungry, uneducated, unhealthy, no opportunities Conquered & Exploited: Peasants, Slaves, Workers

46 Organization of States
States organized on political and territorial lines: not kinship and tribe boundaries States and empires often are multiethnic and multilingual Bureaucrats selected more on ability than heredity Modern states have non-hereditary leadership Roman Empire

47 Why Do States Arise? More complex societies usually conquer less complex ones Advantage of weapons, technology, numbers Centralized decision making more efficient in conquest Official religions, patriotic fervor make troops willing to fight suicidially: fanaticism Arab Muslim Empire

48 How Do Chiefdoms Become States?
Aristotle: States are  the natural condition of human society. Knew only Greek Societies of  400 BC Rousseau: States formed by a social contract a rational decision of people based on self interest. Never happened this way Small groups do not give up their sovereignty willingly Aristotle

49 Irrigation Theory Irrigation, Egypt
Major civilizations had large-scale irrigation: Mesopotamia, Egypt China Mesoamerica Large-scale irrigation requires centralized bureaucracy for Construction Maintenance Management Irrigation, Egypt

50 Irrigation Theory Disputed
States formed to create irrigation systems? But irrigation came after states formed States did not always have centrally controlled irrigation Hanging Gardens, Babylon

51 Population Theory Strong correlation between size of population
and complexity of society Autocatalysis: population growth leads to social complexity Social complexity leads to intensified food production and population growth Population density

52 Food Production Leads to Social Complexity
Requires seasonal labor.  After harvest, labor used for public works, wars of conquest Stored surpluses permit economic specialization, social stratification: feed chiefs, elite, scribes, craftspeople, specialists, feed farmers while they are working on public works

53 Food Production Leads to Social Complexity
Sedentary living required for: Possessions Technology Crafts public works control of people Mayan Temples, Mexico

54 Large Populations Require Complex Social System
Conflict resolution needed between unrelated people:  need laws and authority Communal decisions impossible:  need structure Reciprocal economy impossible:  Need redistributive economy Density of population must be organized Argebam, Iran

55 Amalgamation of Smaller Units
Occurs by merger under threat of external force: 40 Cherokee chiefdoms joined together, American colonies joined together

56 Amalgamation of Smaller Units
Occurs by conquest among chiefdoms Zulu state Hawaii, Tahiti Aztecs, Incas before Spanish arrived Rome, Macedonian empire Etc. Roman Expansion

57 After Conquest Bands: survivors can move away

58 After Conquest Tribes: Need the land Territory occupied.
No need for slaves No need for survivors, except women as wives Defeated men are killed

59 After Conquest States and Chiefdoms Defeated can be used as slaves
Or defeated can be exploited left in place to produce food, goods Deprived of political autonomy Made to pay taxes, tribute Amalgamate their society into victorious state or chiefdom

60 Aztec Tribute Aztec Empire received tribute from its subjects and had tribute lists Spanish wanted tribute from Mexico Interested in Aztec Empire’s tribute lists

61 Aztec Tribute Each year Aztec subjects paid Aztecs: Aztec tribute list
7,000 tons of corn 4,000 tons of amaranth 2,000,000 cotton cloaks Huge quantities of Cacao beans war costumes Shields feather headdresses amber Aztec tribute list

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