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Topics for Today Pollution, Pollution! (Gaseous Pollutants)

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Presentation on theme: "Topics for Today Pollution, Pollution! (Gaseous Pollutants)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Topics for Today Pollution, Pollution! (Gaseous Pollutants)

2 Readings for Today Section 1.10 Burning Hydrocarbons! Section 1.11 The parts about SO 2 and NO x Section 1.12 Tropospheric Ozone, O 3 Section 2.1 Ozone: Where is it?

3 Topics for Friday EXAM 1!

4 Topics for Monday Finish up any gaseous air pollutants we don’t get to today Particulate Matter!

5 Assignment #2 is posted!! Due date = Friday, Feb 23 by the beginning of lecture I will demonstrate in class on Monday

6 Readings for Monday Same as today! PLUS, Sections 6.7 through 6.9 –SO x and NO x and acid rain.

7 Readings for Monday Same as today! PLUS, Sections 6.7 through 6.9 –SO x and NO x and acid rain. What is PM? See page 11 How is it formed? 1.11, for example..

8 Topics for Today Pollution, Pollution! (Gaseous Pollutants)

9 From Monday All combustion reactions produce CO 2 ! Respiration produces CO 2 ! How else is CO 2 produced?

10 From Monday 3. (Acid) Rain

11 From Monday Acid Rain –Nitric Acid, HNO 3 H + NO 3 -

12 From Monday Acid Rain –Nitric Acid, HNO 3 H + NO 3 - Limestone or marble is partly made of calcium carbonate. CaCO 3 Ca 2+ CO 3 2-

13 Reminder!!! Review your (pink) ions worksheet!!

14 Acid Rain HNO 3 + CaCO 3  Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + H 2 CO 3 H + NO 3 - Ca 2+ CO 3 2- Ca 2+ 2 NO H + CO 3 2- Where is the CO 2 ?? Acid + Salt

15 Acid Rain HNO 3 + CaCO 3  Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + H 2 CO 3 Where is the CO 2 ?? H 2 CO 3  H 2 O + CO 2

16 Acid Rain HNO 3 + CaCO 3  Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + H 2 O + CO 2

17 Acid Rain HNO 3 + CaCO 3  Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + H 2 O + CO 2 By the way… chemical or nuclear reaction?

18 3 ways that CO 2 gets into the atmosphere 1.Burning things (Combustion) 2.Respiration 3.Acid-Salt Reactions

19 3 ways that CO 2 gets into the atmosphere 1.Burning things 2.Respiration 3.Acid-Salt Reactions Is CO 2 considered a pollutant?

20 Criteria Pollutants Defined by the EPA –CO –SO 2 –NO x –PM2.5 and PM10 –O 3 (ozone) –lead

21 Criteria Pollutants Defined by the EPA –CO –SO 2 –NO x –PM2.5 and PM10 –O 3 –lead Lead is not very interesting anymore…

22 Criteria Pollutants Defined by the EPA –CO –SO 2 –NO x –PM2.5 and PM10 –O 3

23 Carbon MonoxideCarbon Dioxide O=C=O C O

24 A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas Carbon Monoxide, CO C O

25 A colorless, odorless, tasteless gas Carbon Monoxide, CO C O Where does CO come from?

26

27 These are nationwide averages

28 Why is this somewhat misleadin g?

29 What are the health effects of CO?

30 CO takes the place of O 2 in your blood versus

31 What are the health effects of CO? CO takes the place of O 2 in your blood This reduces the amount of oxygen available to your brain, heart, and other bodily tissue. versus

32 Recommended Levels 8-hour exposure = 9 ppm 1-hour exposure = 35 ppm

33 Recommended Levels 8-hour exposure = 9 ppm 1-hour exposure = 35 ppm What percent is 35 ppm?

34 Recommended Levels 8-hour exposure = 9 ppm 1-hour exposure = 35 ppm What percent is 35 ppm? 35 ppm = %

35 35 ppm (0.0035%) Headache and dizziness within six to eight hours of constant exposure 100 ppm (0.01%) Slight headache in two to three hours 200 ppm (0.02%) Slight headache within two to three hours 400 ppm (0.04%) Frontal headache within one to two hours 800 ppm (0.08%) Dizziness, nausea, and convulsions within 45 minutes. Insensible within two hours. 1,600 ppm (0.16%) Headache, dizziness, and nausea within 20 minutes. Death in less than two hours. 3,200 ppm (0.32%) Headache, dizziness and nausea in five to ten minutes. Death within 30 minutes. 6,400 ppm (0.64%) Headache and dizziness in one to two minutes. Death in less than 20 minutes. 12,800 ppm (1.28%) Death in less than three minutes.

36 Typical CO levels Global Background About 0.2 ppm Urban Background About 5-10 ppm Heavy Traffic Up to 100 ppm

37 Catalytic Converter CO CO 2

38 Catalytic Converter CO CO 2 Where does the CO come from then?

39 “Pounders” One of these emitters can account for about 500-1,000 cars in “normal” condition

40 How much CO is in cigarette smoke? About 2500 ppm! 1,600 ppm: Headache, dizziness, and nausea within 20 minutes. Death in less than two hours. 3,200 ppm: Headache, dizziness and nausea in five to ten minutes. Death within 30 minutes.

41 How is CO produced in nature?

42 Decomposition of Chlorophyll How is CO produced in nature?

43 Incomplete combustion How is CO produced in nature?

44 How is CO produced by people?

45 Incomplete combustion How is CO produced by people?

46 Incomplete combustion: Occurs when there isn’t enough O 2 around to completely convert the C in the fuel to CO 2

47 Review + O2O2 +C CO 2 This is the COMPLETE combustion of carbon!

48 + O 2 +C CO Incomplete Combustion of Carbon

49 + ½ ½ O2½ O2 +C CO Incomplete Combustion of Carbon

50 + O2 O2 +2C2CO 22 Incomplete Combustion of Carbon

51 C + O 2  CO 2 C + ½ O 2  CO Complete Combustion Incomplete Combustion More CO in oxygen depleted environments!

52 Was there any CO formed when we burned the splint in pure O 2 ?

53 Review Complete combustion of methane CH 4 + 2O 2  CO 2 + 2H 2 O

54 Let’s write the equation for the incomplete combustion of methane, CH 4. How do we start??

55 Let’s write the equation for the incomplete combustion of methane, CH 4. CH 4 + O 2  CO + H 2 O Balance !

56 Let’s write the equation for the incomplete combustion of methane, CH 4. CH 4 + 3/2O 2  CO + 2H 2 O Balance ! If you don’t like fractions, then multiply through by 2!

57 Let’s write the equation for the incomplete combustion of methane, CH 4. 2CH 4 + 3O 2  2CO + 4H 2 O

58 Your turn! Write the reaction for the incomplete combustion propane, C 3 H 8 … Balance the C and H first!

59 Your turn! Write the reaction for the incomplete combustion propane, C 3 H 8 … C 3 H 8 + O 2  CO + H 2 O

60 Your turn! Write the reaction for the incomplete combustion propane, C 3 H 8 … C 3 H 8 + 7/2O 2  3CO + 4H 2 O OR 2C 3 H 8 + 7O 2  6CO + 8H 2 O

61 Criteria Pollutants Defined by the EPA –CO –SO 2 –NO x –PM2.5 and PM10 –O 3

62 A colorless and choking gas Sulfur Dioxide, SO 2 EXTREMELY soluble in water!! Why is it a “choking” gas?

63 What are the sources of SO 2 ?

64

65 How is SO 2 produced in nature? Volcanoes!

66 How do people produce SO 2 ?

67 Mainly from burning fossil fuels... Especially coal!

68 Sulfur is about 1.7% of coal.

69 The US burned 1,125,000,000 TONS of coal in 2005 That’s 19,000,000 TONS of sulfur released from the burning of coal.

70 + O2O2 +C CO 2 Coal is mostly carbon… How about the combustion of sulfur?

71 Combustion Combustion + O2O2 +S SO 2

72 Combustion Combustion + O2O2 +S SO 2 DEMO!!

73 = oxygen (O 2 ) = nitrogen (N 2 ) What does the SO 2 do in the air? = Other

74 Reacts further … 2 SO 2 + O 2 2 SO 3 2 SO 2 + O 2 2 SO 3 21% O 2

75 A colorless and choking gas Sulfur Trioxide, SO 3 EXTREMELY soluble in water!!

76 Reacts further … 2 SO 2 + O 2 2 SO 3 2 SO 2 + O 2 2 SO 3 21% O 2 SO?

77 A colorless and choking gas Sulfur Trioxide, SO 3 Why is it a “choking” gas?

78 A colorless and choking gas Sulfur Trioxide, SO 3 EXTREMELY soluble in water!! Why is it a “choking” gas?

79 SO 3 and SO 2 react with water!

80 SO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 SO 3 SO 3 + H 2 O  H 2 SO 4

81 SO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 SO 3 SO 3 + H 2 O  H 2 SO 4 Sulfurous Acid Sulfuric Acid

82 SO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 SO 3 SO 3 + H 2 O  H 2 SO 4 Sulfurous Acid Sulfuric Acid 2H + SO 4 2- Hydrogen IonSulfate Ion

83 SO 2 + H 2 O  H 2 SO 3 SO 3 + H 2 O  H 2 SO 4 Both are components of acid rain!

84 Acid Rain H+H+ SO 4 2- H+H+ H+H+ SO 3 2- H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- H+H+ H+H+ SO 3 2- H+H+ H+H+ SO 4 2- H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ H+H+ SO 3 2- H+H+

85 Do N 2 or O 2 wash out in the rain?

86 Let’s hope not!

87 O 2 + H 2 O O 2 + H 2 O N 2 + H 2 O N 2 + H 2 O

88 Criteria Pollutants Defined by the EPA –CO –SO 2 –NO x –PM2.5 and PM10 –O 3

89

90 NOx = NO NO 2 nitrogen monoxide nitrogen dioxide nitrogen monoxide nitrogen dioxide X = 1X = 2

91 A colorless and choking gas Nitrogen Monoxide (nitric oxide), NO Poisonous Gas Irritates lungs Highly reactive!

92 Making NO N 2 + O 2 2NO High Temperature!

93 How is NO produced in nature?

94 Anywhere in the atmosphere you find HIGH TEMPERATURES!!

95 How is NO produced in nature? Anywhere in the atmosphere you find HIGH TEMPERATURES!!

96 How is NO produced by people?

97 Anywhere in the atmosphere you find HIGH TEMPERATURES!!

98 How is NO produced by people? Anywhere in the atmosphere you find HIGH TEMPERATURES!!

99 Why do motor vehicles account for more than ½ of the NO emissions?

100 How is NO 2 produced naturally?

101 From NO!

102 +

103 2NO + O 2 2NO 2 2NO + O 2 2NO 2 Demo!! +


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