Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Topics for Today Finish up NO x Particulate Matter! Begin Ozone (Troposphere)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Topics for Today Finish up NO x Particulate Matter! Begin Ozone (Troposphere)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Topics for Today Finish up NO x Particulate Matter! Begin Ozone (Troposphere)

2 Readings for Today Readings from Wednesday PLUS, Sections 6.7 through 6.9 –SO x and NO x and acid rain. What is PM? See page 11 How is it formed? 1.11, for example..

3 Topics for Wednesday Ozone, the Good and the Bad Properties of Light

4 Readings for Wednesday Section 1.12 Tropospheric Ozone Section 2.1 What is ozone? Where is it? Section 2.4 Waves of Light Section 2.6 The O 2 and O 3 Sunscreen

5 Announcements

6 Exam #1! You will get these back this week in discussion.

7 Exam #1! You will get these back this week in discussion. See the exam re- grade policy on News of the Week!

8 Topics for Today Finish up NO x Particulate Matter! Begin Ozone (Troposphere)

9 Criteria Pollutants Defined by the EPA –CO –SO 2 –NO x –PM2.5 and PM10 –O 3

10 Criteria Pollutants Defined by the EPA –CO –SO 2 –NO x –PM2.5 and PM10 –O 3 Review… How is NO formed?

11 2NO + O 2 2NO 2 2NO + O 2 2NO 2 Demo!! +

12 A colorless and choking gas Nitrogen Monoxide (nitric oxide), NO Poisonous Gas Irritates lungs Highly reactive!

13 NO 2 NO NO 2 NO NO 2 “nasty” odor “nasty” odor “nasty” odor “nasty” odor highly reactive reactive poisonous poisonous colorless red-brown gas

14

15 NO NO 2 NO NO 2 “nasty” odor “nasty” odor “nasty” odor “nasty” odor highly reactive reactive poisonous poisonous colorless red-brown gas

16 2NO + O 2 2NO 2 2NO + O 2 2NO 2 Unfortunately, life is not so simple… +

17 2NO + O 2 2NO 2 2NO + O 2 2NO 2 Unfortunately, life is not so simple… + This only takes place at VERY high concentrations of NO!

18 page 42

19 Summary N 2 + O 2 2NO N 2 + O 2 2NO NO + O 2 +. OH + VOCs NO 2 + VOCs NO + O 2 +. OH + VOCs NO 2 + VOCs high temp VOC = Volatile Organic Compounds A GAS Contains C Where have we seen VOCs before?

20 Some VOCs Methane Propane Butane Octane

21 What are the effects of NO x ? 1)Leads to acid rain (formation of nitric acid, HNO 3 ) H+H+ NO 3 -

22 What are the effects of NO x ? 1)Leads to acid rain (formation of nitric acid, HNO 3 ) 2)Leads to the formation of smog (smoky fog!)

23 What are the effects of NO x ? 1)Leads to acid rain (formation of nitric acid, HNO 3 ) 2)Leads to the formation of smog (smoky fog!) 3)Extremely potent lung irritants 1)Especially for susceptible populations (like asthma sufferers)

24 What are the effects of NO x ? 1)Leads to acid rain (formation of nitric acid, HNO 3 ) 2)Leads to the formation of smog (smoky fog!) 3)Extremely potent lung irritant 1)Especially for susceptible populations (like asthma sufferers 4)Formation of ozone Which we will talk about soon!

25 Criteria Pollutants Defined by the EPA –CO –SO 2 –NO x –PM2.5 and PM10 –O 3

26 Particulate matter: Liquid droplets or solid particles in the air. AKA Atmospheric Aerosols

27 Particulate matter: Liquid droplets or solid particles in the air Are we breathing PM right now? Handout: PM and their size

28 TERMS PM2.5: Particles with a diameter of < 2.5 μm. PM10: Particles with a diameter of < 10 μm. μm) Human Hair (about 50 μm)

29 PM2.5: Particles with a diameter of < 2.5 μm. PM10: Particles with a diameter of < 10 μm. PM2.5 is contained in PM10! TERMS

30 More Terms… Fine Particles: Particles with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Also called the respirable fraction.

31 More Terms… Fine Particles: Particles with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Also called the respirable fraction. Usually caused by combustion!

32 Fine Particles: Particles with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5). Also called the respirable fraction. Coarse Particles: The Big Stuff. Diameter greater than 2.5 μm.

33 Usually formed by mechanical means.

34 Where does PM come from naturally?

35 Burning things… Mostly Coarse or Fine?

36 Where does PM come from naturally? Sea Spray… Mostly Coarse or Fine?

37 Where does PM come from naturally? Air Current s(Wind)! Mostly Coarse or Fine?

38 How do people make PM?

39 Automobile s / Trucks Exhaust Brakedust Road Dust! Mostly Coarse or Fine?

40 How do people make PM? Burning things… Mostly Coarse or Fine?

41 Assignment #2 How do people make PM? Sausage Factories ?

42 Assignment #2 How do people make PM? Sausage Factories ?

43 What does PM LOOK like? Soot Particle Asbestos Fiber Virus

44 How do we measure PM?

45 PERSONAL CYCLONE SAMPLERS URG PM2.5 CYCLONE 3 Lpm BGI PM2.5 CYCLONE 3.5 Lpm ADI PPSS PM2.5 SAMPLER 2 Lpm per filter (SCALE IN INCHES, 6” MARKED)

46 Waukesha, WI!!

47 How much is too much?

48 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Particle Pollution Pollutant Primary Stds. Averaging Times Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) N/AAnnual 150 µg/m 3 24-hour Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) 15.0 µg/m 3 Annual 35 µg/m 3 24-hour

49 National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particle Pollution Pollutant Primary Stds. Averaging Times PM10NONEAnnual 150 µg/m 3 24-hour PM µg/m 3 Annual 35 µg/m 3 24-hour Which is thought to be more harmful?

50 Yearly Average = 20 μg / m 3 Yearly Average = 13 μg / m 3 PM2.5

51 Good Good Moderate Moderate Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Data Not Available

52 “The Six City Study” Does PM directly affect human health?

53 Dockery, New England Journal of Medicine 1993 SLHWTPSLHWTP “Fine” particles = PM2.5 Relative Mortality Rate Relative to Portage “The Six City Study”

54 What happens when you inhale PM? Depends on the size!

55 What happens when you inhale PM? Depends on the size! Coarse Particles Fine Particles (Respirable)

56 What happens when you inhale PM? Depends on the size! Coarse Particles Fine Particles

57 These contain hydrogen peroxide, active oxygen species (free radicals), peroxidase, lysozyme and hydrolytic enzymes. This is known as the oxidative burst, and leads to digestion of the phagolysosomal contents, after which they are eliminated by exocytosis

58 Macrophage - A type of cell that specializes in getting rid of foreign particles. Macro = “Big” Phage = “Eaters”

59

60 Phagocytosis: When a macrophage “eats” a foreign particle Phage = Eating Cyte = Cell

61 Once the particle is inside the cell…

62 Once the particle is inside the cell… The particles are digested…

63 Once the particle is inside the cell… Oxidative Burst!

64 Oxidative Burst! Partly made of reactive oxygen species, or ROSs!

65 Oxidative Burst! Made of reactive oxygen species, or ROSs! Where have we seen a ROS before…?? ?

66 H 2 O H 2 O.+ + e – Ionizing radiation From Lecture 8! H2O.+ + H 2 O. OH + H 3 O + Unpaired electron

67 H 2 O H 2 O.+ + e – Ionizing radiation From Lecture 8! H2O.+ + H 2 O. OH + H 3 O + Unpaired electron When are particles dangerous ?

68 Video!

69 Criteria Pollutants Defined by the EPA –CO –SO 2 –NO x –PM2.5 and PM10 –O 3

70 Good Good Moderate Moderate Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups Unhealthy Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Very Unhealthy Data Not Available


Download ppt "Topics for Today Finish up NO x Particulate Matter! Begin Ozone (Troposphere)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google