Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Sedimentary Geology Geos 240 – Chapter 8 Depositional Environments Part 5 Shallow Carbonates & Evaporites Dr. Tark Hamilton Dr. Tark Hamilton Readings.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Sedimentary Geology Geos 240 – Chapter 8 Depositional Environments Part 5 Shallow Carbonates & Evaporites Dr. Tark Hamilton Dr. Tark Hamilton Readings."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sedimentary Geology Geos 240 – Chapter 8 Depositional Environments Part 5 Shallow Carbonates & Evaporites Dr. Tark Hamilton Dr. Tark Hamilton Readings from Sediments & Basins: (8:1-67) Readings from Sediments & Basins: (8:1-67) Camosun College Camosun College

2

3 Bahamas Platform & Fringing Reefs La Habana.

4 Transgression & Optimal Carbonate Factory

5 Continental Shelf Eastern Nicaragua

6 Florida Keys: Shallow Back Reef – Lagoon – Mangrove Swamps 20 km

7 The Great Barrier Reef: Cretaceous through Recent! Queensland OZ

8 Lateral Progradation Bahamas Bank Reflection Seismic Section & Interpretation

9 Cross Section of Redwater Reef, Dev. NW of Edmonton flexed later

10 Devonian Reef, Gyrfalcon Bluff, Banks Is

11 Devonian Crinoid Reef, Princess Royal Is

12 Fossiliferous Producing Dev Kee Scarp Reef Norman Wells

13 Devonian Coral Reef, Norman Wells NWT

14 Dev. Reef: Dolomite/Stromotoporoid Norman Wells

15 Ordovician Bioherm, Niagara Falls

16 Devonian Reef: Dolomitized Stromotoporoid Cairns Formation, Grassi Lakes Reef, Canmore

17

18

19

20 Proterozoic Stromatolites, Dismal Lakes NWT

21 Silurian Stromatolites, Somerset Island NWT Tidal Scour Algal Mound Buildup Supertenuous Drape

22 Sabkha Depositional Model, Persian Gulf Arid Tidal Coast

23 Ancient Tidal Limestone Facies

24 Mississippian Lisburne Limestone Tidal Crossbeds Diagenetic Chert

25 Ordovician Intraclast Dolomite Breccia, Somerset Is. NWT

26 Silurian Ripples & Flasers Dolomites, Somerset Is. NWT

27 The New Conservative Ordovician Burrow Mottled Limestone Ottawa

28 Ordovician Tyndall Stone, Burrow Mottled Dolomite, Red River Fm Manitoba

29 Ripups & Scours Silurian Dolomites, Somerset Is. NWT

30 Transgressive Phase Rising System Tract

31 Regressive Phase Falling System Tract Seds can come from Out of plane

32 C-Ord. Cow Head Turbidites, NF

33 C-Ord. Cow Head Debris Flow, NF

34 C-Ord. Cow Head Deformed Clast

35 Exhumed Carboniferous Facies Transition Sverdrup Basin, Ellesmere Island Sverdrup Basin Rim Bioclastic Debrites Anhydrite, Shale, Detrital Carbonates

36 Evaporites & Evaporite Basins Geographically Enclosed Water Bodies Geographically Enclosed Water Bodies Tropics +/- 30° Latitude, descending dry air Tropics +/- 30° Latitude, descending dry air Sabkhas, Playas, Salinas, Salt Lakes Sabkhas, Playas, Salinas, Salt Lakes Incipient Rift Basins – Triassic Margins of Atlantic Incipient Rift Basins – Triassic Margins of Atlantic Restricted Back Reef Basins: Carb’s + Anhydrite Restricted Back Reef Basins: Carb’s + Anhydrite Evaporated Cratonic/Epicontinental Seas: Devonian of Alberta, Sask., Michigan & Zechstein Perm/Penn of North Sea Basin Evaporated Cratonic/Epicontinental Seas: Devonian of Alberta, Sask., Michigan & Zechstein Perm/Penn of North Sea Basin Often alternate climatically with humid clastics Often alternate climatically with humid clastics

37 Usiglio’s Experiment: Evaporation of Sea Water & Sequence of Salts CalciteAnhydriteHaliteBitterns s.g. = 1.035

38 Development of Evaporite Basin

39

40 Evaporite Minerals Dominant Evaporite Minerals include: Carbonates, Chlorides, Sulphates, Borates & Nitrates Dominant Evaporite Minerals include: Carbonates, Chlorides, Sulphates, Borates & Nitrates Marine systems dominantly produce Carbonates, Chlorides & Sulphates Marine systems dominantly produce Carbonates, Chlorides & Sulphates Arid Terrestrial Systems produce unusual diagenetic minerals in pore spaces and beds of Borates & Nitrates additional to the Carbonates, Chlorides & Sulphates. Arid Terrestrial Systems produce unusual diagenetic minerals in pore spaces and beds of Borates & Nitrates additional to the Carbonates, Chlorides & Sulphates. Additional to the unusual Continental anion Chemistry, salts of metals form some unusual brine minerals, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Ag and even (NH 4 ) + ! Additional to the unusual Continental anion Chemistry, salts of metals form some unusual brine minerals, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Ag and even (NH 4 ) + ! Salts precipitate in inverse order depending on their solubility. (solubility in strong/odd brines is empirical) Salts precipitate in inverse order depending on their solubility. (solubility in strong/odd brines is empirical) Salts in vadose zone porosity are important in soils Salts in vadose zone porosity are important in soils

41 Textures in Resedimented Evaporites, Italy Messinian (~5Ma) Mediterranean Basin

42 Evaporite Minerals Carbonates: Carbonates: MineralFormula MineralFormula CalciteCaCO 3 CalciteCaCO 3 DolomiteCaMg (CO 3 ) 2 DolomiteCaMg (CO 3 ) 2 SideriteFeCO 3 SideriteFeCO 3 NatriteNa 2 CO 3 & Natron6(H 2 O) NatriteNa 2 CO 3 & Natron6(H 2 O) TronaNa 3 (CO 3 )(HCO 3 )2(H 2 O) TronaNa 3 (CO 3 )(HCO 3 )2(H 2 O) (Green River, WY; Lake Magadi, Kenya) (Green River, WY; Lake Magadi, Kenya)

43 Carbonate Minerals Natrite Trona

44 Sandstone with Cubic Halite Casts Jurassic, Utah

45 Evaporite Minerals Chlorides: Chlorides: MineralFormula MineralFormula HaliteNaCl HaliteNaCl SylviteKCl SylviteKCl CarnalliteKMgCl 3 · 6H 2 O CarnalliteKMgCl 3 · 6H 2 O

46 Chloride Minerals HaliteHopperCrystals Sylvite Carnallite Halite

47 Cyclic & Crossbedded Devonian Halite, Goderich ON In what kind of Basin would “Cyclic Halite” beds form? In what sort of flow regime would Halite X-beds form?

48 Evaporite Minerals Sulphates: Sulphates: MineralFormula MineralFormula AnhydriteCaSO 4 AnhydriteCaSO 4 GypsumCaSO 4 · 2H 2 O GypsumCaSO 4 · 2H 2 O LangbeiniteK 2 Mg 2 (SO 4 ) 3 LangbeiniteK 2 Mg 2 (SO 4 ) 3 PolyhaliteK 2 Ca 2 Mg(SO 4 ) 4 · 2H 2 O PolyhaliteK 2 Ca 2 Mg(SO 4 ) 4 · 2H 2 O KieseriteMgSO 4 · H 2 O KieseriteMgSO 4 · H 2 O KainiteKMg(SO 4 )Cl · 3H 2 O KainiteKMg(SO 4 )Cl · 3H 2 O

49 Interbedded Gypsum & Calcsiltite, Silurian Somerset Island Solutional Collapse ?

50 Interbedded Anhydrite & Shale Ellesmere Island

51 Sulphate Minerals Kainite Kieserite Langbeinite Polyhalite

52 Evaporite Minerals Nitrates: Nitrates: MineralFormula MineralFormula NiterKNO 3 NiterKNO 3 NitratineNaNO 3 · 2H 2 O NitratineNaNO 3 · 2H 2 O NitrocalciteCa(NO 3 ) 2 · 4H 2 O NitrocalciteCa(NO 3 ) 2 · 4H 2 O NitrobariteBa(NO 3 ) 2 NitrobariteBa(NO 3 ) 2 GerhardtiteCu 2 (NO 3 )(OH) 3 GerhardtiteCu 2 (NO 3 )(OH) 3

53 Nitrate Minerals NiterNitratine Nitrocalcite Nitrobarite Gerhardtite

54 Borax Mines Death Valley CA

55 Evaporite Minerals Borates: Borates: MineralFormula MineralFormula BoraciteMg 3 [ClB 7 O 13 ] BoraciteMg 3 [ClB 7 O 13 ] BoraxNa 2 [B 4 O 7 ] 2 · 10H 2 O BoraxNa 2 [B 4 O 7 ] 2 · 10H 2 O ColemaniteCa[B 3 O 4 (OH) 3 ] · 3H 2 O ColemaniteCa[B 3 O 4 (OH) 3 ] · 3H 2 O HydroBoraciteCaMg [B 3 O 4 (OH) 3 ] 2 · 3H 2 O HydroBoraciteCaMg [B 3 O 4 (OH) 3 ] 2 · 3H 2 O Larderellite(NH 4 )B 5 O 6 (OH) 4 Larderellite(NH 4 )B 5 O 6 (OH) 4 TincalconiteNa 2 [B 4 O 7 ] · 5H 2 O TincalconiteNa 2 [B 4 O 7 ] · 5H 2 O Ulexite NaCa[B 5 O 6 (OH) 6 ]· 5H 2 O Ulexite NaCa[B 5 O 6 (OH) 6 ]· 5H 2 O

56 Borate Minerals Boracite Borax ColemaniteHydroboracite Larderellite Tincalconite Ulexite

57 Salar de Atacama, Antofagasta Chile

58 The End: Chapter 8 Part 5!


Download ppt "Sedimentary Geology Geos 240 – Chapter 8 Depositional Environments Part 5 Shallow Carbonates & Evaporites Dr. Tark Hamilton Dr. Tark Hamilton Readings."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google