Presentation on theme: "Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks. Sedimentary Rocks Igneous Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Magma Sediment Pressure And Cementation Weathering/Erosion Heat and."— Presentation transcript:
Sediments and Sedimentary Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks Igneous Rocks Metamorphic Rocks Magma Sediment Pressure And Cementation Weathering/Erosion Heat and Pressure Cooling Heat Pressure Weathering Erosion
Sediments (soft) Material (such as gravel, sand, mud, and lime) that is transported by wind, water, ice, or gravity; Material that is precipitated from solution; Deposits of organic origin (such as coal and coral reefs). Sedimentary Rock (hard) Rock formed by the accumulation and consolidation of sediment.
Sediments - unconsolidated particles created by 1. The weathering of rock 2. The secretions of organisms or decomposition of organic matter 3. Chemical precipitation
Sedimentary Rocks Composed of lithified sediments - by compaction - by cementation Two (Textures) clastic (detrital) non-clastic
Types of Sediments Clastic Non-clastic 1. Biochemical 2. Chemical
1. Clastic – broken fragments of rock produced by weathering. Range in size from largest boulder to smallest clay particle. Classified according to size. Found everywhere on the Earth. Types of Sediments
Clastic Texture Texture - Size, shape, and distribution of particles that collectively make up a rock Size Rounding Sorting
Clastic Sediment Size
Clastic Texture Roundness – the shape of sediment grains. Related to the distance a sediment has been transported.
Roundness / Sphericity of Sediments
Size Rounding Sphericity Sorting
Clastic Sediments Sorting Sorting – separation of sediments by grain size and density. Poorly sorted – sediment with a wide range of grain sizes. Well sorted – sediment with a small range of grain sizes.
Sorting of Sediments
Sorting - a function of transported 1. Water 2. Wind 3. Glaciers
Texture and Transport Distance In general, as transport distance increases, rounding and sorting increase. Examples: Breccia – cemented close to source Conglomerate – transported then cemented